General Information

All posts in the General Information category

Signs and Symptoms of Normal and Abnormal Periods

Published May 26, 2017 by teacher dahl

abnormal period

From time to time, every woman likely suspects that her menstrual cycle is abnormal for one reason or another. However, often what we think is an abnormal period is actually normal menstruation.

It’s important to know when you are having an abnormal period because it can be a symptom of a health issue that needs attention, including pregnancy, uterine cancer, and uterine fibroid tumors. So the question becomes, how do you know when you’re experiencing abnormal periods?
Abnormal Bleeding During Periods
You may be experiencing an abnormal period, abnormal uterine bleeding, or an abnormal menstrual cycle if the time between your menstrual cycles is longer than 21 to 35 days, or your period lasts longer than a week. If you need to change tampons or sanitary pads after only one or two hours because they’re saturated, this is a red flag (no pun intended!) as well.

For girls under 11 and post-menopausal women, any vaginal bleeding should be treated as abnormal and prompt a call to your healthcare provider.

When Menstrual Cramps Are Abnormal
While it’s normal to experience a small amount of cramping during your period, it’s not normal to experience severe menstrual cramps. If you suddenly begin having severe cramps you should be evaluated by your health care provider to determine the cause of the increased pain you experience during your period.

  • Some young women have more intense cramping during the first few years after their first period.
  • This typically decreases with age and after childbirth.
  • If you are over 16 and haven’t had a period yet, consult your health care provider to determine the cause and be sure and ask about the possibility of polycystic ovarian syndrome or PCOS.

mens 1

Period Symptoms That May Seem Abnormal But Usually Aren’t
The best thing to do when you suspect that you’re experiencing abnormal bleeding or menstrual cycles is to consult with your healthcare provider.

However, sometimes what appears to be an irregular symptom actually isn’t. For instance, blood clots, which are actually pieces of tissue in your vaginal discharge may look a little scary the first time you notice them. But this is no cause for alarm; blood clots such as these are perfectly normal.

Skipping periods or having irregular periods for the first few years of menstruation also is normal for many girls and young women.

If you’re extremely active you may skip a menstrual cycle or two from time to time. This is another normal occurrence among women who regularly participate in intense sports or other activities.

 

mens 3

Things to Remember About Menstruation
Here are some basics every woman should know to help determine if you’re having an abnormal period.

Normal menstrual bleeding lasts about 5 days.
The typical amount of blood lost during menstruation is about 2 to 8 tablespoons, although it may seem like more than that.
The average menstrual cycle is 28 days from the first day of one month’s period to the first day of the net month’s period. However, anywhere from 21 to 35 days between periods is considered a normal menstrual cycle.
If you’re ever unsure whether unusual bleeding or other menstrual symptoms are abnormal, you should talk to your healthcare provider. Finding irregularities with your menstrual cycle before they turn into serious problems is just one more reason regular exams are advised for women of childbearing age.

So much can vary from month to month and from woman to woman, that having a healthcare provider who knows you and your cycle is important for your health and your peace of mind.

Source

Weight Watchers Diet

Published May 3, 2017 by teacher dahl

Weight watchers main frame

Overview
The aim: Losing weight while living healthier.
The claim: You’ll drop up to 2 pounds weekly.

The theory: There’s more to weight loss than counting calories – if you make healthier choices and behavior changes, you’ll feel better while losing weight. The Weight Watchers Beyond the Scale Program, launched in late 2015, is designed to help people eat better, move more and shift their mindset. The program assigns every food and beverage a Smart Points value, based on its nutrition (higher amounts of saturated fat and sugar increase the point value; higher amounts of protein bring the point value down).

Choices that fill you up the longest “cost” the least, and nutritionally dense foods cost less than empty calories. So if you’re wavering between a cup of lobster bisque soup or a chicken salad sandwich – both 380 calories – the sandwich is the smarter choice. A backbone of the plan is multi-model access (via in-person meetings, online chat or phone) to support from people who lost weight using Weight Watchers, kept it off and have been trained in behavioral weight management techniques.

With Beyond the Scale, Weight Watchers members lost 15 percent more weight in their first two months following the new program, the company says, compared with those who followed the previous program.

How does Weight Watchers Diet work?

weight watcher 1
DOS & DON’TS
Do: Load up on fruits and veggies.
In late 2015, Weight Watchers introduced its new Beyond the Scale program, which emphasizes three components: eating healthier; fitness that fits your life; and learning skills and techniques that help you shift your mindset.

The new Smart Points food plan guides members toward an overall eating pattern that is lower in calories, saturated fat and sugar, and higher in protein. However, you can eat whatever you want – provided you stick to your daily Smart Points target, a number based on your gender, weight, height and age. You can find the points values of more than 290,000 foods on the mobile app or desktop food database.

Weght watcher's recipe

Don’ts

Processed choices like bologna usually have higher point values due to calories and saturated fat. Fresh fruits and most vegetables carry zero points, so you can eat as many as you need to feel full. That’s because they tend to be low-calorie and nutrient-dense, so they’re more filling than, say, a candy bar. (Fruit juice, dried fruit and starchy vegetables don’t count as freebies, since they’re more calorie-dense for the same serving size.)

The company offers thousands of recipes, each with a SmartPoints value, to show how it fits into your eating plan. If you’re preparing a dish that’s not listed in the database, you can calculate the points value ingredient by ingredient, using your mobile app or through the company’s website. Vegetarians, gluten-free eaters and people with other dietary preferences can also easily find items and recipes tagged for them.
Fit Points, a new metric to help you track activity, was introduced in late 2015. Every member has a personalized Fit Points goal based on an initial assessment, and FitPoints can be earned anytime, anywhere – from cleaning the house to walking the dog. Whether you want to get active and don’t know where to start or are ready to take it to the next level and run a 5K, the program helps members uncover fun and easy ways to move more. Plus, Weight Watchers syncs with popular activity apps and monitors, including FitBit, Apple Health, Jawbone, Withings and Misfit.

The Weight Watchers Beyond the Scale program also aims to help those attempting to lose weight while living healthier get in the right frame of mind. The program offers skills and techniques in areas such as mindfulness and self-compassion to help individuals gain greater self-awareness to make different choices and stay motivated to achieve their goals.

Weight Watchers isn’t only about what you eat and making lifestyle changes; support is also a big component. Though you can choose to follow the plan online only, company-funded research found that those who attended Weight Watchers meetings and used the mobile app/online tools lost nearly eight times more than those who tried to lose weight on their own.

What happens during those 30-minute get-togethers?  In a group format facilitated by a Weight Watchers leader who has lost weight on the program and kept it off, members discuss both their scale and non scale victories and problem-solve with others in similar situations. If in-person meetings don’t appeal to you, you can do the program totally online. All who follow Weight Watchers have access to an online feature that allows them to chat with an expert familiar with the program at any time, 24/7. Customized support and action plans are also available through a phone-based personal coaching program.

Vegan Diet

Published April 17, 2017 by teacher dahl

vegan 1

 

Overview

The aim: Depends, but may include weight loss, heart health and diabetes prevention or control.
The claim: Going vegan could help shed pounds and fend off chronic diseases.
The theory: You can cook up a perfectly healthy, meat- and dairy-free menu that supports weight loss and reduces the risk of heart disease, diabetes and cancer.

How does Vegan Diet work?
While vegetarians eliminate meat, fish and poultry, vegans take it a step further,excluding all animal products – even dairy and eggs. (Vegans are often animal rights activists who don’t believe in using animal products for any purpose.)

So say goodbye to refried beans with lard, margarine made with whey and anything with gelatin, which comes from animal bones and hooves, too. Fruits, vegetables, leafy greens, whole grains, nuts, seeds and legumes will be your staples.
Say Goodbye to Animal Products too.

animal products

Exactly how you shape your diet each day is up to you, but you’ll typically aim for six servings of grains, likely from bread and calcium-fortified cereal; five servings of legumes, nuts and other types of protein, such as peanut butter, chickpeas, tofu, potatoes and soy milk; and four daily servings of veggies, two servings of fruit and two servings of healthy fats, such as sesame oil, avocado and coconut, according to an American Dietetic Association guide. There’s also no need to give up dessert: Vegans can eat baked goods (cupcakes and cobbler, for example) made without butter, eggs or albumin.

How much does it cost?
It’s moderately pricey. Fruits, vegetables and soy products – which should be filling your cart if you’re doing it right – are generally more expensive than heavily processed foods like white bread, sugary cereals and sweets. But bypassing the butcher will help keep the tab reasonable.

Will you lose weight?
Likely. Research shows vegans tend to eat fewer calories, weigh less and have a lower body mass index (a measure of body fat) than their meat-eating counterparts. If you’re doing it right – i.e., eating lots of fruits, veggies and whole grains – you’ll likely feel full on fewer calories than you’re allowed each day. With that “calorie deficit” and a little physical activity, you’re bound to shed pounds. How quickly and whether you keep them off is up to you.

Here’s what several key studies have to say about veganism:

  • In one study, 99 participants with Type 2 diabetes followed either a vegan diet or a diet based on American Diabetes Association guidelines. After 22 weeks, the vegans lost an average of 13 pounds versus 9 in the ADA group, according to findings published in 2006 in Diabetes Care. If you’re overweight, losing just 5 to 10 percent of your current weight can help stave off some diseases.
    In another study, published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 1999, researchers tracked 45 people: 20 meat-eaters and 25 vegans who’d been following the approach for an average of 12 years. Body mass index was appreciably lower among the vegans, nine of whom had a BMI of below 19, the researchers found; a BMI below 18.5 suggests a person is underweight.
    More than 60 overweight, postmenopausal women were split into two groups: Half followed a vegan diet, and the other half followed a National Cholesterol Education Program diet (low in fat and dietary cholesterol). After a year, vegan dieters lost more weight than did the NCEP group: 10.8 pounds compared with 3.9 pounds. The pattern held up after two years, when the vegans still weighed 6.8 pounds less than they did when the study began, compared with 1.8 pounds for the NCEP group, according to findings published in 2007 in Obesity.

    In a study published in 2014 in Nutrition, researchers followed a group of 50 overweight or obese adults for six months. They found that those on a vegan diet lost significantly more weight than those on other plans, including vegetarian, semivegetarian and omnivorous – by about 4.3 percent or an average of 16.5 pounds. The study authors suspect that’s because the vegan dieters were focusing on high-fiber foods, which help you feel full for longer, and their diets were low in fat and likely had fewer calories.

    Vegan
    How easy is it to follow?
    How difficult is the idea of a turkey-free Thanksgiving and morning cereal without the milk? Be mindful that healthy veganism requires planning, especially if you’re a newbie.

  • Convenience: When you want to cook, there’s a recipe somewhere that’ll suit your taste buds. Still, veganism takes some work and creativity. It’s up to you to plan meals around plant protein rather than animal protein.
  • Recipes: Limitless. Vegan magazines, books and websites abound, offering suggestions for every meal and cuisine.
  • Eating out: Doable, but options may be limited. Garden vegetable soup and steamed veggies make good appetizers. Entree salads are your best bet, but don’t forget to hold the bacon bits, croutons and cheese. For dessert, go with fresh fruit.
  • Alcohol: Only certain types of alcohol are vegan-friendly. Some wines, for example, are filtered through gelatin, egg whites and isinglass, made from fish bladders. Check which brands are OK on Barnivore, a guide to alcoholic beverages for vegans.

 

  • Fullness: Nutrition experts emphasize the importance of satiety, the satisfied feeling that you’ve had enough. If you’ve built a healthful vegan diet around fiber-packed veggies, fruits and whole grains, you shouldn’t feel hungry between meals.
  • Taste: You’re preparing the food – if it doesn’t taste good, you know who to blame. Try reinventing your favorites: Go for black-bean instead of steak burritos, or if chicken stir-fry is your thing, use tofu instead of poultry. And consider replacing turkey meatballs or the meat in spaghetti sauce with white beans. There are lots of dessert options, too, including raspberry lavender cupcakes, gingerbread pumpkin seed brittle, cherry-berry peanut butter cobbler and poppy seed scones. (Often, treats are made using nondairy milk, soy or coconut creamer, flaxseeds, chickpea flour, vegan cream cheese, and even vegan sprinkles.)

    variety

Health & Nutrition
Veganism can conform to a healthful eating plan, but it takes work, and the risk of insufficient amounts of key nutrients like calcium, vitamin D, vitamin B-12, zinc and iron is real. That worried experts a bit, but they still gave the diet a respectable score.

What is the role of exercise?
Veganism only has rules on what you can and cannot eat, but that doesn’t mean you shouldn’t exercise. No matter the diet, the more you move, the quicker you’ll see the pounds come off – and you’ll reduce your risk of developing diabetes, heart problems and other chronic diseases. Adults are generally encouraged to get at least 2 1/2 hours of moderate-intensity activity (like brisk walking) each week, along with a couple days of muscle-strengthening activities. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention offers tips to get you started.

pretty eater

Vegan Diet Recipes
Sample Menu
Here’s a day of meals for a vegan on a 1,500-calorie diet, adapted from a sample menu published in the Vegetarian Journal.
Breakfast
Orange-vanilla smoothie
1 slice whole wheat toast with 2 tablespoons almond butter
Lunch
2 whole wheat tortillas with 1 cup kidney beans, 1/4 cup avocado and salsa, chopped tomatoes and lettuce as desired
Steamed kale with 1 teaspoon flax oil
1 cup calcium-fortified soymilk
Dinner
Tofu and snow pea stir-fry
1/2 cup brown rice
1/2 cup watermelon cubes
Snack
1 cup calcium-fortified soymilk
3/4 cup unsweetened breakfast cereal

plate of veggies

Are there health risks?
If you create a sensible plan, you should be safe. But if you have a health condition, check with your doctor before going vegan.

Vegans often don’t get enough calcium, which can cause weak bones that break easily, according to a study published in Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism in 2010. And in a 2009 report in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition on the health effects of a vegan diet, researchers warned that vegans often don’t get enough vitamin D, vitamin B-12 and zinc. They’re also often low in the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, which are important for brain, eye and cardiovascular health. Supplements might be necessary.

A 2016 study by a Mayo Clinic review team found that some poorly planned vegan diets could lead to a deficiency of vitamin B-12, vitamin D, calcium, iron, protein and omega-3 fatty acids. A lack of some of these nutrients can have implications for bone strength, anemia, neurological disorders and other health problems. The clinic review team recommends that physicians observe their patients who eat vegan diets to makes sure they have adequate blood levels of calcium, ferritin, iron, vitamin B-12 and vitamin D.

Does it have cardiovascular benefits?
It could. An eating pattern heavy on fruits and veggies, but light on saturated fat and salt, is considered the best way to keep cholesterol and blood pressure in check and heart disease at bay.
• A 2016 study by researchers at the University of Florence in Italy found people who ate vegan and vegetarian diets showed a significant decrease in risk of heart disease and total cancer. The study found that people who ate vegan and vegetarian diets reduced their risk of ischemic heart disease by 25 percent, and people who consumed a vegan diet decreased their risk of total cancer by 15 percent.

• In a 12-year study that compared 6,000 vegetarians with 5,000 meat-eaters, researchers found that vegans had a 57-percent lower risk of ischemic heart disease than the meat-eaters.

• In the 2006 Diabetes Care study mentioned in the weight loss section, researchers concluded that vegan diets have a lipid- and cholesterol-lowering effect, likely because they eliminate dietary cholesterol (plant products are cholesterol-free) and are low in saturated fat.

• On your way to becoming vegan but can’t give up animal products cold turkey? Research finds those who simply eat a higher proportion of plant-based foods than animal-based foods have a 20-percent lower risk of dying from a cardiovascular disease, such as heart attack or stroke. But there’s evidence that taking it a step further and going all-in vegan may provide additional protection against high blood pressure and death related to cardiovascular disease.

Can it prevent or control diabetes?
It appears to be a good option for both.

Prevention: Being overweight is one of the biggest risk factors for Type 2 diabetes. If going meat-and-dairy-free helps you lose weight and keep it off, you’ll stand a better chance of staving off the disease. Some research has linked veganism with a lower diabetes risk.

Control: Vegan diets are healthful for people with diabetes, according to the American Diabetes Association. And because there are no rigid meal plans or prepackaged meals, you can ensure that what you’re eating doesn’t go against your doctor’s advice.

• In the 2006 Diabetes Care study mentioned above, which involved 99 people with Type 2 diabetes, both a vegan diet and an ADA-dietary guidelines diet improved control of blood sugar levels. However, the benefit was more profound in the vegan group. Researchers also found that vegan diets may have a beneficial effect on hemoglobin A1C levels, a measure of blood sugar over time. After 22 weeks, the vegans decreased their hemoglobin A1C levels by 0.96 percentage points, compared with 0.56 among the ADA dieters. And 43 percent of vegan dieters reduced the number of diabetes medications they were taking, while just 26 percent of the ADA group did.

Vegan Diet Do’s & Don’ts

Do: Have about six servings of grains a day. Whole-wheat bread, quinoa and calcium-fortified cereal are good sources.
Do: Have dessert.
But it needs to be made without butter, eggs or albumin. Tofu cheesecake is a popular choice
Don’t: Eat any animal products.
That even includes dairy, gelatin and eggs.

Reference: Mayo Clinic

5 Foods to Add to your Diet for Better Blood Pressure

Published April 14, 2017 by teacher dahl

fresh fruits

 

Sometimes, the hardest part of starting a healthier diet isn’t finding the willpower to change your habits, but thinking of new foods to eat. This is particularly true if your previous diet was largely made up of junk foods and snacks.
Do you need help starting on the healthy eating path? Try adding these five foods to your daily diet (in the servings recommended below) to lower your blood pressure and improve your overall health:
Fresh fruits, such as oranges, apples, bananas, watermelon, pineapples and more. Fresh fruits are packed with vitamins and minerals. If you eat canned fruit or drink fruit juice, make sure you choose a natural option that doesn’t contain any extra sugar. Consume 4-5 servings of fruit daily

 

milk
Low-fat (or no-fat) dairy products such as milk, yoghurt and cheese contain large amounts of protein and calcium. This makes them essential for muscle and bone health. Consume 2-3 servings of low-fat dairy foods daily.
Almonds, lentils, kidney beans and other legumes are wonderful sources of fibre and protein. Many nuts are also wonderful sources of healthy fats and phytochemicals – substances that prevent cardiovascular disease. Try to eat one serving of nuts or lentils daily.

lean meats
Lean meats such as chicken breast, tuna, salmon or beef steak are wonderful sources of protein and iron. If you like to consume red meat, choose cuts that contain as little fast a possible. Choose a small portion that can fit inside your palm; fill the rest of your plate with complex carbs and vegetables.

carbs
Complex carbohydrates such as brown rice, whole-wheat bread and pasta or cereal. Complex carbohydrates are a wonderful energy source that results in steady energy and alertness throughout the day. Consume about six servings of complex carbs per day; more if you’re exceptionally active.

This Is The Psychology Behind The Hidden Agenda Of Supermarkets

Published April 7, 2017 by teacher dahl

choosing pix

We all know that there are certain rules we should follow if we want to shop smart and healthily. Plan your meals. Write a list – and stick to it. Don’t go shopping on an empty stomach. But sometimes you can go in with the best intentions and come out with a family-size block of chocolate and a packet of chips. But you shouldn’t be too mad at yourself for that transgression; turns out supermarkets are specifically designed to trip you up.

A recent study by Live Lighter revealed that 60 per cent of Aussies buy unhealthy foods if they are on sale and in prime positions – such as end-of-aisle displays and at the checkout.

It’s all part of the psychology of supermarkets, which are specifically designed to keep you shopping longer, feeling happier and buying more. According to environmental psychologist Paco Underhill, “Upward of 50 per cent of what we buy in a supermarket we had no intention of buying as we walked in the door.” But how do we get duped time and time again? Here are four sneaky ways the experience of shopping gets you to overbuy.

Smell
Think it’s simply a matter of convenience that those roast chickens are made onsite? Think again – the mouth-watering smell that hits you right as you walk into the store is there to remind you just how hungry you are before you start your shop.

super positioning

Positioning

If you’re just popping in for a bottle of milk, the layout will have you walking right to the very back of the store. The most common items most people purchase – milk, bread and eggs – are often placed at opposite ends of the shop. By making you walk farther, you’re more likely to see something else you ‘need’ on the way. Not to mention the fact that the path to your staples involves walking down aisles full of tempting junk food first.

Music
The supermarket playlist is at its most grating in November, when the Christmas music starts up way too early to get you in that festive (buying) spirit. But those catchy tunes have a purpose the rest of the year, too: a landmark 1982 study of supermarket shoppers found people spent 34 per cent more time shopping when background music was playing.

exit

Entrances and exits
Have you ever noticed that the entrances of most supermarkets are on the right, with the exits on the left? The aim of this is to get you moving counter-clockwise, right to left along the aisles, priming you to pick up things from the right-hand shelves. Exactly where supermarkets place the more expensive items. And it works. According to a discussion on ABC Radio Canberra, counter-clockwise shoppers spend an average of two dollars more per trip than punters moving in a clockwise direction.

So, how can you outsmart the supermarket giants and stop making those impulse purchases? LiveLighter Victoria Campaign Manager Alison McAleese suggests making fewer trips to the supermarket and sticking to the outer aisles to lessen the temptation.

“Steer clear of cheap promotions on junk food and drinks by sticking to the outer aisles of the supermarket where there is a plenty of fresh healthy food like fruit and vegetables,” she says. “Also consider shopping at local markets, greengrocers or butchers where you are less likely to find sales and promotions on processed, high kilojoule food and drinks.” To the farmers’ markets we go!

 

Reference

Protein & Other Nutrients In An Egg

Published March 12, 2017 by teacher dahl

egg frame

YOLKS Vs WHITES

A combination of amino acids, some of which are called essential because the human body needs them from the diet because it can’t synthesize them. Adequate dietary protein intake must include all the essential amino acids your body needs daily. The egg boasts them all: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine. These amino acids are present in a pattern that matches very closely the pattern the human body needs, so the egg is often the measuring stick by which other protein foods are measured. In addition to the nine essential amino acids, there are nine other amino acids in an egg.
Many different ways to measure protein quality have been developed. According to the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS), whole egg, whey protein, casein and soy-protein concentrate all score 1 on a scale of 0 to 1. Whole egg exceeds all other protein foods tested with a score of 1.21 (above human needs) in the Amino Acid Score (AAS) rating system. At 3.8, the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) of eggs also outscores other proteins.

Altogether each Large egg provides a total of 6.29 grams of high-quality, complete protein. For this reason, eggs are classified with meat in the Protein Foods Group. One egg of any size equals one ounce of lean meat, poultry, fish or seafood. In addition to about 12.6% of the Daily Reference Value (DRV) for protein, a large egg provides varying amounts of many other nutrients, too.

eggs
Yolk
The yolk, or yellow portion, of an egg makes up about 34% of the liquid weight of the egg. It contains all of the fat in the egg and a little less than half of the protein. The yolk of a large egg contains about 55 calories.
With the exception of niacin and riboflavin, the yolk contains a higher proportion of the egg’s vitamins than the white, including vitamins B6 and B12, folic acid, pantothenic acid and thiamin. All of the egg’s vitamins A, D, E and K are in the yolk. Egg yolks are one of the few foods naturally containing vitamin D. The yolk also contains more calcium, copper, iron, manganese, phosphorus, selenium and zinc than the white.
Double-yolked eggs are often produced by young hens whose egg production cycles are not yet completely synchronized. They’re often produced too, by hens which are old enough to produce extra large-sized eggs. Genetics is a factor, also. Occasionally a hen will produce double-yolked eggs throughout her egg-laying career. It’s rare, but not unusual, for a young hen to produce an egg with no yolk at all.It’s the yolk which is responsible for the egg’s emulsifying properties.
Yolk Color
Yolk color depends on the hen’s diet. If a hen eats plenty of yellow-orange plant pigments called xanthophylls, the xanthophylls will be deposited in the egg yolk. Hens fed mashes containing yellow corn or alfalfa meal lay eggs with medium yellow yolks, while those eating wheat or barley yield lighter-colored yolks. A colorless diet, such as white cornmeal, produces almost colorless yolks. Natural yellow-orange substances, such as marigold petals, may be added to light-colored feeds to enhance yolk color. Artificial color additives are not permitted. Most buyers in this country prefer gold or lemon-colored yolks. Yolk pigments are relatively stable and are not lost or changed in cooking.
Albumen – Also Known As Egg White.
Depending on the size of the egg, albumen accounts for most of an egg’s liquid weight, about 66%. The white contains more than half the egg’s total protein, a majority of the egg’s niacin, riboflavin, magnesium, potassium and sodium, and none of the fat. The white of a large egg contains about 17 calories.
Albumen color is opalescent and doesn’t appear white until an egg is beaten or cooked. The cloudy appearance comes from carbon dioxide. As eggs age, carbon dioxide escapes, so the albumen of older eggs is more transparent than that of fresher eggs.
The albumen consists of four alternating layers of thick and thin consistencies. From the yolk outward, they are designated as the inner thick or chalaziferous white, the inner thin white, the outer thick white and the outer thin white. As an egg ages, the egg white tends to thin out because its protein changes in character. That’s why fresh eggs sit up tall and firm in the pan while older ones tend to spread out.
When you beat egg white vigorously, it foams and increases in volume six to eight times. Egg foams are essential for making meringues, puffy omelets, soufflés, angel food and sponge cakes.

SOURCE

 

 

 

 

Too Much TV Tied to Poor Math Scores

Published March 7, 2017 by teacher dahl

watching TV

Kindergartners, who spend more than a couple of hours per day watching television tend to score lower in tests of math and executive function, according to a new study by researchers at New York University’s (NYU) Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development and Université Sainte-Anne in Nova Scotia.

Studies have shown that TV watching is linked to declines in early academic skills, but little is known about how socioeconomic status influences television viewing and child development. In the new study, the researchers looked at whether the negative relationship between watching television and school readiness varied by family income.

“Given that studies have reported that children often watch more than the recommended amount, and the current prevalence of technology such as smartphones and tablets, engaging in screen time may be more frequent now than ever before,” said lead author Andrew Ribner, a doctoral candidate in the Department of Applied Psychology at NYU Steinhardt.

Kid on TV

The researchers analyzed data from 807 kindergartners of diverse backgrounds. Their parents reported family income, as well as the number of hours of television their children watch on a daily basis. Video game, tablet, and smartphone use were not included in the measurement.

Children were assessed using measures of math, knowledge of letters and words, and executive function — key cognitive and social-emotional competencies, including working memory, cognitive flexibility, and inhibitory control, that are viewed as fundamental for school readiness.

The findings show that the number of hours of television young children watch is related to decreases in their school readiness, particularly their math skills and executive function. This association was strongest when children watched more than two hours of television.

As family incomes decreased, the link between television watching and drops in school readiness grew, meaning children from low-income families are more negatively affected by excess television. Those at or near the poverty line (an annual income of around $21,200 for a family of four) saw the largest drop in school readiness when children watched more than two hours of television.

A more modest drop was observed among middle-income families (measured as $74,200 per year for a family of four), while there was no link between school readiness and television viewing in high-income homes (measured as around $127,000 per year for a family of four).

Interestingly, while TV watching was negatively associated with math skills and executive function, a similar link was not found with letter and word knowledge. The researchers hypothesize that TV programming, especially educational programs for children, may help improve literacy among young children in ways that are not found in math.

While the study did not evaluate the type of content the children watched, nor the context of their television viewing, the researchers note that both may play a role in the findings, particularly in explaining why wealthier families seem to be protected from declines in school readiness linked to too much television.
Furthermore, affluent parents with more time and resources may be more likely to watch television with their children, offering explanation and discussion that can promote understanding.

“Our results suggest that the circumstances that surround child screen time can influence its detrimental effects on learning outcomes,” said Dr. Caroline Fitzpatrick of Université Sainte-Anne, who is also an affiliate researcher at Concordia University and a coauthor on the study.

The findings, published in the Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, support current guidelines limiting screen time for young children. In 2001, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommended that children over the age of two watch no more than two hours of television per day.

SOURCE

%d bloggers like this: