Campus flicks

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How to Get Your Teen Out of Bed on Time for School

Published May 20, 2015 by teacher dahl

waking up teens pix

Waking up early for school is difficult for most teens. And there’s research that suggests they aren’t just being oppositional – their inability to wake up may be biologically based.Teens need about 9 1/4 hours of sleep for optimal performance and development, according to the National Sleep Foundation. However, research has shown that most teens are actually getting less than 7 hours of sleep each night.

Other studies also show that most teens’ natural sleep patterns cause them to stay up late, until around 11PM which of course makes it difficult for them to wake up early for school.Despite teen’s natural sleep cycles, learning how to wake up in the morning and get out of bed on the days you don’t feel like it, is a life skill. Teach your teen how to do so now, so when he’s an adult, he can make it to work on time even on the days when he doesn’t feel like it.

1. Remove Electronics from the Bedroom
Don’t allow your teen to take his cell phone or laptop into his bedroom at night. If your teen receives a text message from a friend at 2AM, he may be tempted to reply and it could interrupt his sleep. He may also be tempted to check his Twitter feed or Facebook page in the middle of the night if he has access to it.Sometimes teens want to sleep with the TV on at night. But keeping the TV on can also interfere with getting a good night’s sleep. If your teen has a TV in his bedroom, establish a mandatory time that it must be shut off.
2. Set a Bed time routine
Most parents relax a little bit about bedtime during the teenage years. While offering more freedom is developmentally appropriate, a complete lack of bedtime rules may lead to teens staying up until the wee hours of the morning. Provide some guidance about bedtime to encourage healthy sleep habits.
3. Create Weekend Sleeping Rules

Some teens stay up all night and sleep all day on the weekends and during school vacations. This can wreak havoc on their schedules during the school week. Don’t allow your teen to sleep all day when he has days off. Establish a reasonable bedtime and enforce a reasonable wake up time.
4. Discourage Afternoon Naps

Sometimes teens feel exhausted during the school day and as soon as they get home, the want to take a nap. But that can interfere with their nighttime sleep and reinforce the cycle of staying up late and feeling tired during the day. If your teen comes home from school feeling tired, encourage exercise and outdoor activity along with an earlier bedtime.
5. Provide Consequences When Necessary

If your teen’s refusal to get out of bed is leading to more problems – like he’s late for school – you may need to start instilling consequences. Use logical consequences, like taking away privileges. If your teen is bothered by the fact that he’s late for school, the natural consequence of being late may be consequence enough.
6. Offer Incentives
Link your teen’s privileges to his responsible behavior. If he wants to use the car on Friday night, you’ll need to know he can be responsible enough to get ready for school on time. If he wants rides to spend time with friends, tell him he can when he shows he can get out of bed on time. Create a reward system to link positive behavior to incentives.
7. Find Ways to Increase Your Teen’s Responsibility

Waking your teen up repeatedly and arguing with him to get out of bed won’t be helpful to him in the future. Teens need to learn how to get themselves ready independently – unless you plan to still be dragging him out of bed when he’s an adult. Problem-solve together how he can get himself ready more independently.

8. Seek Professional Help

If your teen’s ability to get out of bed is interfering with his life you may need to seek professional help. Start by talking to your teen’s doctor to rule out any potential medical issues. Sometimes teens can experience sleep disorders or other medical issues that increase fatigue.
Once you’ve ruled out physical health problems, it may be helpful to speak with a mental health professional. Sometimes mental health problems, like depression or anxiety disorders, can interfere with sleep.

source: disciplineabout.com

Twelve (12) facts about Music, and how they affect the Brain

Published May 6, 2015 by teacher dahl

1. goosebumps

The brain can work in ways we can’t comprehend. In numerous studies they have been able to see just how much normal things like music can effect, and even alter, it completely. These facts about music will give you an insight into the complexity of your own mind.

1. The chills you get when you listen to music, is mostly caused by the brain releasing dopamine while anticipating the peak moment of a song.

Dopamine is a feel-good chemical released by the brain. This chemical is directly involved in motivation, as well as addiction. These studies found a biological explanation for why music always has been such a huge part of emotional events around the world since the beginning of human history.

2. brain

2. There are few activities in life that utilizes the entire brain, and music is one of them.

With Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (FMRI), a research team recorded a group of individuals who were listening to music. They found that listening to music recruits the auditory areas, and employs large-scale neural networks in the brain. In fact, they believe music can activate emotional, motor, and creative areas of the brain.

3. Music regularly

3. Playing music regularly will physically alter your brain structure.

Brain plas­tic­ity refers to the brain’s abil­ity to change through­out life. Changes asso­ci­ated with learn­ing occur mostly at the con­nec­tions between neu­rons. When studying musicians, they found that the cor­tex vol­ume was high­est in pro­fes­sional musi­cians, inter­me­di­ate in ama­teur musicians, and lowest in non-musicians.

4. The brain responds to music the same way it responds to something that you eat.

As stated above, dopamine is a chemical released by the brain. This chemical is connected with the feeling of euphoria which is associated with addiction, sex, and even eating. Dopamine is what enables a person to feel the pleasures of such things. A study using only instrumental music proves that anticipation for a musical rush released the same kind of reactions in the brain as anticipating the taste of your food.

4. work out

5. Listening to music while exercising can significantly improve your work-out performance.
Dissociation is a diversionary technique which lowered the perceptions of effort. This technique can divert the mind from feelings of fatigue, and heighten positive mood states like vigor. By using music during low to moderate exercise intensities, you will find yourself with an overall more pleasurable experience while working out.

5. choice

6. An emotional attachment could be the reason for your favorite song choice.

Favorite songs are often context-dependent. Even though many people often change their favorite song depending on the most recent releases, it is proven that long-lasting preferences are due mainly to an emotional attachment to a memory associated with the song.

7. heart beat

7. Your heartbeat changes to mimics the music you listen to.
Music is found to modulate heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration. The cardiovascular system mirrored deflating decrescendos, and swelling crescendos in a study of 24 volunteers. Distinguishing changes in sound patterns were even found to be equipped in those as small as a developing fetus.

8. Listening to happy vs. sad music can affect the way you perceive the world around you.

The brain always compares the information that comes through the eyes with what it expects about the world, based on what you know. The final results in our mind is what we perceive as our reality. Therefore, happy songs that lift your spirits make you see the world around you differently then that of a sad person.

9. An “earworm” is a song that you can’t seem to get out of your head.

An earworm is a cognitive itch in your brain. This “brain itch” is a need for the brain to fill in the gaps in a song’s rhythm. The auditory cortex is a part of your brain that will automatically fill in a rhythm of a song. In other words, your brain kept “singing” long after the song had ended.

10. dopamine

10. Music triggers activity in the same part of the brain that releases Dopamine, the “pleasure chemical”.

The nucleus accumbens is a part of your brain that releases Dopamine during eating, and sex. The most interesting part, is that the nucleus accumbens is just a small part of the brain that gets effected by music. It also effects the amygdala, which is the part of the brain used to process emotion. for music.

11 Patients

11. Music is often prescribed to patients with Parkinson’s disease and stroke victims.
Music therapy has been around for decades. Music triggers networks of neurons into organized movement. The part of the brain the processes movement also overlaps speech networks. These two key elements help patients overcome the obstacles that most effect them such as basic motor skills, and speech difficulties.

12. skill

12. According to a study, Learning a musical instrument can improve fine motor and reasoning skills.
In a study of children, it revealed that those with three or more years of musical training preformed better in fine motor skills and auditory discrimination abilities then those who had none. They even tested better for vocabulary and reasoning skills, even though those are quite separate from music training.

Source: unbelievable-facts.com

Takayasu Disease (Takayasu’s Arteritis)

Published January 25, 2015 by teacher dahl

TAK pix

Takayasu’s arteritis, also called TAK, is a rare disease involving inflammation in the walls of the largest arteries in the body: the aorta and its main branches. The disease results from an attack by the body’s own immune system, causing inflammation in the walls of arteries. The inflammation leads to narrowing of the arteries, and this can reduce blood flow to many parts of the body.

TAK can result in a weak pulse or loss of pulse in arms, legs and organs. For this reason, people used to refer to the illness as “pulseless disease.”

FAST FACTS

  • TAK is much more common in women than men.
  • The disease most often starts in young adults, but children and middle-aged people may get it, too.
  • Doctors find TAK on angiograms. Angiograms are types of X-ray tests that look at arteries. In TAK, angiograms show narrowing of large arteries.
  • Narrowed or blocked arteries cause problems that range from mild to serious.
  • Treatment of TAK almost always includes glucocorticoids (prednisone and others), which help reduce the inflammation.
  • Patients also may be prescribed other medications that suppress the immune system.

    WHAT IS TAKAYASU’S ARTERITIS?
    This disease is one of many types of vasculitis. Vasculitis refers to inflammation of blood vessels, and arteries are a type of blood vessel. In TAK, this inflammation occurs in the walls of large arteries: the aorta and its main branches. These blood vessels supply blood to the head, arms, legs and internal organs, such as the kidneys. Inflammation may cause the vessels’ walls to thicken. With time, this thickening results in a narrowing inside the artery, called a “stenosis.” If severe enough, such narrowing can reduce blood flow and result in less oxygen sent to the body parts or organs that the artery supplies.

Stenosis can cause symptoms (what you feel) and problems ranging from annoying to dangerous:

  • Pain with use of an arm or leg (called “claudication”)
  • Dizziness, headaches or fainting
  • Weakness and fatigue
  • High blood pressure
  • Chest pain
  • Heart attack
  • Stroke
    Stenosis occurs slowly with time, and smaller vessels may grow and expand to carry blood around the blockage. These new vessels are called “collateral vessels.” Collateral vessels may help prevent major organ damage.

Sometimes inflammation in the artery weakens the vessel wall, causing vessel expansion rather than narrowing (stenosis). This expansion is called an aneurysm (a bulge in the artery). The aorta as it emerges from the heart is one of the more common areas where an aneurysm can form. An aneurysm in the aorta might lead to heart valve dysfunction or rupture (bursting) of the aorta.

WHAT CAUSES TAKAYASU’S ARTERITIS?
As with most types of vasculitis, the cause of TAK is not known. It is rare to see more than one case in a family and the role of genetics is unclear. A link between TAK and an infection has also not been proven.

TAK is thought to be an autoimmune disease, which means that the body comes under attack by its own immune system. In TAK, the immune system is attacking the blood vessels.

juvenile arthritis pix

WHO GETS TAKAYASU’S ARTERITIS?
TAK is rare, affecting perhaps one in 200,000 people. It most often occurs in people ages 15–40 years, but sometimes affects younger children or middle-aged adults. Nine of 10 patients are female. TAK seems to be more common in East Asia, India and, perhaps, Latin America, than in other regions. Yet, it is rare even in these regions and occurs in a wide range of ethnic groups.

HOW IS TAKAYASU’S ARTERITIS DIAGNOSED?
Doctors most often find TAK on an angiogram, a test that shows how well blood flows in arteries. A doctor often orders an angiogram when a patient has symptoms and abnormal results of the physical exam. These include loss of pulse or low blood pressure in an arm, or abnormal sounds (“bruits”) heard over large arteries with a stethoscope.

There are various types of angiograms, including standard ones that involve injection of dye directly into an artery while X-ray test are taken. Less invasive types of angiography use another imaging technique such as computed tomography, and this is CT angiography or CTA. When MRI—magnetic resonance imaging— is used, it is called magnetic resonance angiography or MRA.

Angiograms may show narrowing of one or more large arteries. It is important for the doctor to try to distinguish between narrowing due to vasculitis (inflammation of arteries) and narrowing due to atherosclerosis (“hardening” of the arteries). At times, this can be challenging. There are other causes of arterial narrowing as well, including fibromuscular dysplasia, another rare disease that mainly affects women.

Large arteries can also become inflamed in a few other diseases. Examples include other types of vasculitis: giant cell arteritis (a disease of older adults), relapsing polychondritis, Cogan’s syndrome and Behçet’s disease. Some infections can also cause inflammation in large arteries.

Blood tests for inflammation include measurements of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (sometimes referred to as the “sed rate” or ESR) and C-reactive protein (often called CRP). Results of these tests are often, but not always, high in patients with TAK. However, these tests are also abnormal in a large number of other inflammatory diseases. Patients with TAK may also have anemia due to chronic (long-term) inflammation. Anemia is also tested for with a blood test. None of these blood tests can tell you for sure if you have TAK, and these blood tests may be abnormal in many other diseases.

Patients with TAK may have no symptoms, and the disease is so rare that doctors may not easily recognize it. Thus, there is often a delay in detecting it, sometimes several years.

HOW IS TAKAYASU’S ARTERITIS TREATED?
TAK most often needs treatment to prevent further narrowing of affected arteries. Yet, the narrowing that has already occurred often does not improve, even with drug treatment.

  • Glucocorticoids (prednisone, prednisolone or others), often referred to as “steroids,” are an important part of treatment. The dose and length of treatment depend on how bad the disease is and how long the patient has had it. However, these drugs can have long-term side effects.
  • Doctors sometimes prescribe immune-suppressing drugs because their side effects may be less serious than those of glucocorticoids. This is called “steroid-sparing” treatment. These medicines include methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, cyclophosphamide and drugs that block tumor necrosis factor (such as etanercept, adalimumab or infliximab). Doctors frequently prescribe these drugs to treat other rheumatic diseases, but they also use them to treat TAK. There is not enough proof that these drugs are definitely effective in treating TAK. Research studies are ongoing to find new drugs to treat TAK.
  • Some experts advise routine use of low-dose aspirin. The thought is that it will help prevent blood clots from forming in damaged arteries.

Therapy for TAK also includes screening for high blood pressure and high cholesterol, and treatment if these problems are present.

Lasting damage to arteries sometimes needs a vascular procedure or surgical treatment. This may involve angioplasty (widening a narrowed or blocked blood vessel), with or without placement of a stent, to prop open the vessel. Another treatment option is bypass grafting, a surgery to redirect blood flow around a blockage in a blood vessel.

WHAT IS THE BROADER HEALTH IMPACT OF TAKAYASU’S ARTERITIS?
Because TAK can cause heart problems, high blood pressure and stroke, patients with TAK should talk to their doctor about ways to lower the risk of these serious problems.

LIVING WITH TAKAYASU’S ARTERITIS
TAK is a chronic disease and may need long-term treatment. Some patients have no symptoms or only mild symptoms, but others are disabled or need surgery more than once. Side effects from medicines, mainly glucocorticoids, can be troubling. Patients taking immunosuppressants are at risk of infections.

Blood pressure measurement is often not correct (falsely low due to blocked arteries) in the arm. So, your health care provider may need to measure your blood pressure in a leg.

The disease can recur after treatment or can silently get worse. It is often very hard to know whether TAK is active again. Thus, most patients need frequent doctor visits and angiograms.

POINTS TO REMEMBER

  • TAK is a rare inflammatory disease of large arteries.
  • These patients often need treatment with glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive drugs.
  • Symptoms of TAK reflect poor blood flow to tissues and organs.
    Detection of TAK most often requires testing by use of angiograms.
  • THE RHEUMATOLOGIST’S ROLE IN TREATING TAKAYASU’S ARTERITIS
    Rheumatologists are usually the experts with the most overall knowledge about TAK. Thus, they direct the care of these patients, particularly those patients needing immunosuppressive drugs. Other doctors that patients may need to see include a cardiologist (heart doctor) and a vascular surgeon. A team approach can offer the best care to patients with this disease.

Source :rheumatology .org

Top 10 Controversial Psychiatric Disorders

Published November 3, 2014 by teacher dahl

gender id

Introduction:

The proposed revisions of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) have spurred debate over what illnesses to include in the essential psychiatric handbook. Everything from gender identity disorder to childhood mood swings has come under fire, and it’s not the first time. The history of psychiatry is littered with impassioned fights over controversial diagnoses.
1. Gender identity disorder.
Perhaps the most controversial of all current DSM disorders is gender identity disorder. Under the DSM-IV, people who feel that their physical gender does not match their true gender are diagnosed with gender identity disorder (GID). The DSM-5 proposals would revise the criteria for the disorder and change the name to the less-stigmatizing gender incongruence.
But to many, the DSM changes don’t go far enough.
“To have gender incongruence in the DSM-5, as they’ve defined it, still leaves it open to a child being sent to be ‘fixed’ when a child doesn’t have any problems,” said Diane Ehrensaft, a clinical psychologist in Oakland, Calif., who specializes in gender identity issues in children.
In fact, the largest controversy over GID is about an area the DSM doesn’t cover: treatment. Should kids who feel gender mismatched be allowed to define themselves, or should they be encouraged to identify with their physical gender? Those who argue for the latter see their role as helping kids get comfortable in their own skin. Those who argue for letting the child take the lead, like Ehrensaft, say that forcing a kid to live as an unwanted gender causes depression and anxiety.
Therapies like Ehrensaft’s are relatively new, so there are no long-term studies comparing the two approaches. When it comes to examining differences in how the kids turn out, “We don’t know,” said Kenneth Zucker, a University of Toronto psychologist who advocates teaching kids to identify with their physical gender. “We should know in another 10 years.”

sex addiction

2. Sex addiction
According to the Society for the Advancement of Sexual Health, sex addiction is marked by a lack of control over one’s sexual behavior. Sex addicts pursue sex despite negative consequences, can’t set boundaries and obsess over sex even when they don’t want to think about it. Self-described addicts report that they get no pleasure from their sexual behaviors, only shame.

This disorder has yet to darken the pages of the DSM, and it likely won’t be included in the DSM-5, either. Instead, the APA is recommending the addition of a new sexual disorder called hypersexual disorder, which doesn’t describe sex as an addiction, but could fit many people who are in treatment.

homosexuality

3. Homosexuality
In perhaps the most famous psychiatric controversy of all, the APA did away with homosexuality as a mental disorder in 1973 after much protest by gay and lesbian activists. The change wasn’t easy, but the weight of the scientific evidence suggested that same-sex attraction was a normal variant of sexuality among well-adjusted people.

Still, the APA included a diagnosis in the 1980 DSM-III called ego-dystonic homosexuality. This category was a compromise with psychiatrists who insisted that some gays and lesbians came to them looking for treatment. “This revision in the nomenclature provides the possibility of finding a homosexual to be free of psychiatric disorder, and provides a means to diagnose a mental disorder whose central feature is conflict about homosexual behavior,” explained Robert Spitzer, a member of the APA’s task force, in a 1973 position statement.

But ego-dystonic homosexuality was short-lived. The category didn’t make sense to many psychiatrists, who argued that anxiety over sexual orientation could fit into already-existing categories, according to UC Davis psychologist Gregory Herek. In 1986, ego-dystonic homosexuality disappeared from the DSM.

asperger

4. Asperger’s disorder
In 1994, Asperger’s disorder, which is marked by normal intelligence and language abilities but poor social skills, made the DSM-IV. When the DSM-5 is published in 2013, the disorder may get the boot.

The reason? Research on Asperger’s and high-functioning autism has failed to find a difference between the two diagnoses. Overlap between the two disorders is rampant (up to 44 percent of kids diagnosed with Asperger’s or “other autism spectrum” labels actually met the criteria for high-functioning autism, according to a 2008 survey). If the proposed changes are adopted, people with Asperger’s will be reclassified as having high-functioning autism.

But some Asperger’s advocates disapprove. The high-functioning autism label doesn’t always fit people with Asperger’s, said Dania Jekel, the executive director of the Asperger’s Association of New England, which opposes the change.

“People with Asperger’s are going to be missed,” Jekel said.

Bipolar disorder
5.. Childhood bipolar disorder
If diagnosing adults with a childhood disorder is controversial, so is diagnosing children with a disorder once thought to occur mainly in adults. Bipolar disorder, which is characterized by mood swings between depression and excitability, recently skyrocketed as a childhood disorder. Between 1994 and 2003, the number of doctor visits associated with childhood bipolar disorders went up 40-fold, according to a 2007 study in the journal Archives of General Psychiatry.

The problem, according to the APA, is that at least some of that increase is due to changes in the way psychiatrists diagnose bipolar in kids, not an actual increase in cases. To correct the issue, the APA is considering changes to the current bipolar criteria, as well as the addition of a new disorder, temper dysregulation with dysphoria. That disorder would apply to kids with persistent irritable moods and frequent temper tantrums, but has already drawn skepticism from some who believe it pathologizes normal kid behavior.

ADHD in adults

6. Adult ADHD
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is a well-known childhood diagnosis. Kids with ADHD have trouble sitting still, paying attention and controlling their impulses. Only recently, however, have psychiatrists begun to diagnose ADHD in adults.But just as ADHD in children was criticized as over-diagnosed, so is adult ADHD. A common accusation is that psychiatrists are conspiring with pharmaceutical companies to sell more ADHD drugs, writes New York University psychiatrist Norman Sussman in a March 2010 editorial in Psychiatry Weekly. However, adult ADHD is here to stay, Sussma writes: “The benefits of pharmacologic and behavioral therapies are well-established.”

diassociative disorder

7. Dissociative identity disorder
Once known as multiple personality disorder, dissociative identity disorder was made famous by the book “Sybil” (Independent Pub Group, 1973), which was made into a movie of the same name in 1976. The film and book told the story of Shirley Mason, pseudonym Sybil, who was diagnosed as having 16 separate personalities as a result of physical and sexual abuse by her mother.
The book and the movie were hits, but the diagnosis soon came under fire. In 1995, psychiatrist Herbert Spiegel, who consulted on Mason’s case, told the “New York Review of Books” that he believed Mason’s “personalities” were created by her therapist, who — perhaps unwittingly — suggested that Mason’s different emotional states were distinct personalities with names. Likewise, critics of the dissociative identity diagnosis argue that the disorder is artificial, perpetuated by well-meaning therapists who convince troubled and suggestible patients that their problems are due to multiple personalities.
Nonetheless, dissociative identity disorder has weathered this criticism and won’t undergo any major changes in the DSM-5.

narcisstic disorder
8. Narcissistic personality disorder
Someone with an inflated ego, need for constant praise and lack of empathy for others might sound like a shoe-in for psychotherapy. But the introduction of narcissistic personality disorder into the DSM in 1980 was not without controversy.

The biggest problem was that no one could agree on who had the disorder. Up to half of people diagnosed with a narcissistic personality also met the criteria for other personality disorders, like histrionic personality disorder or borderline personality disorder, according to a 2001 review in the Journal of Mental Health Counseling. Which diagnosis they got seemed almost arbitrary.

To solve the problem, the American Psychiatric Association has proposed big changes to the personality disorder section of the DSM-5 in 2010. The new edition would move away from specific personality disorders to a system of dysfunctional types and traits. The idea, according to the APA, is to cut out the overlap and create categories that would be useful for patients who have personality problems, not just full-blown disorders.

penis envy

9. Penis envy
Sigmund Freud revolutionized psychiatry in the late 1800s and early 1900s with his theories on the unconscious state, talk therapy and psychosexual development. Nowadays, many of these theories — like his conclusion that young girls’ sexual development is driven by jealousy over lack of a penis and sexual desire for their father — seem outdated.

But not everyone has consigned Freud to the dust heap. Organizations like the American Psychoanalytic Association still practice and promote Freudian-style psychoanalysis, and groups like the International Neuropsychoanalysis Society try to combine cutting-edge neuroscience research with Freud’s century-old theories. How successful they’ll be is unknown: A 2008 study in the Journal of the American Psychoanalytic Association found that today’s psychology departments rarely teach psychoanalysis.

hysteria

10. Hysteria
In the Victorian era, hysteria was a catch-all diagnosis for women in distress. The symptoms were vague (discontentment, weakness, outbursts of emotion, nerves) and the history sexist (Plato blamed the wanderings of an “unfruitful” uterus).

The treatment for hysteria? “Hysterical paroxysm,” also known as orgasm. Physicians would massage their patients’ genitals either manually or with a vibrator, a task they found tedious but surprisingly uncontroversial. More contentious was the practice of putting “hysterical” women on bed rest or demanding that they not work or socialize, a treatment that often worsened anxiety or depression.

According to a 2002 editorial in the journal Spinal Cord, the diagnosis of hysteria gradually petered out throughout the 20th century. By 1980, hysteria disappeared from the DSM in favor of newer diagnoses like conversion and dissociative disorders.

Source : livescience.com

Coping With Exam Stress

Published August 23, 2014 by teacher dahl

eyes

As the examination period approaches, you may feel the pressure of the exams getting to you. This is not surprising — in fact it is quite normal to feel some anxiety about exams. Most people find that a bit of pressure spurs us on and enables us to get down and do some serious work.

General Exam Stress-Busting Tips:

  • Believe in yourself
    You wouldn’t have been given a place on the course if you didn’t have the ability to do it. Therefore, if you prepare for the exams properly you should do fine, meaning that there is no need to worry excessively.
  • Don’t try to be perfect
    It’s great to succeed and reach for the stars. But keep things in balance. If you think that “anything less than A+ means I’ve failed” then you are creating mountains of unnecessary stress for yourself. Aim to do your best but recognise that none of us can be perfect all of the time.
  • Take steps to overcome problems
    If you find you don’t understand some of your course material, getting stressed out won’t help. Instead, take action to address the problem directly by seeing your course tutor or getting help from your class mates.
  • Don’t keep things bottled up
    Confiding in someone you trust and who will be supportive is a great way of alleviating stress and worry.
  • Keep things in perspective
    The exams might seem like the most crucial thing right now, but in the grander scheme of your whole life they are only a small part.

lying examinee

 

Overcoming test anxiety:  General preparation

  • Building confidence

Review your personal situation and skills
Academic counselors can help you in these areas, or refer to our Guides on the topic:

  • Developing good study habits and strategies (a link to our directory)
  • Managing time
    (dealing with procrastination, distractions, laziness)
  • Organizing material to be studied and learned
  • Take a step by step approach to build a strategy and not get overwhelmed
    Outside pressures  success/failure consequences (grades, graduation), peer pressure, competitiveness, etc.
  • Reviewing your past performance on tests  to improve and learn from experience

Test preparation to reduce anxiety:  Approach the exam with confidence

  • Use whatever strategies you can to personalize success: visualization, logic, talking to your self, practice, team work, journaling, etc.
  • View the exam as an opportunity to show how much you’ve studied and to receive a reward for the studying you’ve done
  • Be prepared!
  • Learn your material thoroughly and organize what materials you will need for the test. Use a checklist
  • Choose a comfortable location for taking the test with good lighting and minimal distractions
  • Allow yourself plenty of time, especially to do things you need to do before the test and still get there a little early
  • Avoid thinking you need to cram just before
  • Strive for a relaxed state of concentration
  • Avoid speaking with any fellow students who have not prepared, who express negativity, who will distract your preparation
  • A program of exercise is said to sharpen the mind

Get a good night’s sleep the night before the exam

good sleep

Don’t go to the exam with an empty stomach

  • fresh fruits and vegetables are often recommended to reduce stress.
  • Stressful foods can include processed foods, artificial sweeteners, carbonated soft drinks, chocolate, eggs, fried foods, junk foods, pork, red meat, sugar, white flour products, chips and similar snack foods, foods containing preservatives or heavy spices

food

  • Take a small snack, or some other nourishment
  • to help take your mind off of your anxiety.
  • Avoid high sugar content (candy) which may aggravate your condition

exam stress pix

During the test:

  • Read the directions carefully
  • Budget your test taking time
  • Change positions to help you relax
  • If you go blank, skip the question and go on
  • If you’re taking an essay test
  • and you go blank on the whole test, pick a question and start writing. It may trigger the answer in your mind

Don’t panic    when students start handing in their papers. There’s no reward for finishing first

Use relaxation techniques
If you find yourself tensing and getting anxious during the test:

  • Relax; you are in control.
  • Take slow, deep breaths
  • Don’t think about the fear
  • Pause: think about the next step and keep on task, step by step
  • Use positive reinforcement for yourself:
  • Acknowledge that you have done, and are doing, your best

Expect some anxiety

  • It’s a reminder that you want to do your best and can provide energy
  • Just keep it manageable
  • Realize that anxiety can be a “habit”
  • and that it takes practice to use it as a tool to succeed

After the test, review how you did

  • List what worked, and hold onto these strategies
  • It does not matter how small the items are: they are building blocks to success
  • List what did not work for improvement
  • Celebrate that you are on the road to overcoming this obstacle

Source: studygs.net./humanities.manchester.uk

 

Summer Wear Ideas: Denim or ” Maong ” Jeans ( Termed “Boyfriend ” style Jeans )

Published April 23, 2013 by teacher dahl

Image

We women have been “borrowing” menswear for decades and I think the boyfriend jean or Denim  is definitely a keeper.

There are a few things to remember when it comes to pulling off the boyfriend jean:

• “Relaxed” doesn’t mean “sloppy.” The boyfriend jeans’ basic silhouette is already loose, so wearing it with an oversized top is just one item closer to looking like a hobo. Fit still very much matters.

• Not all boyfriend jeans and body shapes are created equal. There are some new styles touted as “slim” or “skinny” boyfriend jeans that feature a more fitted cut.

• You don’t always have to buy your boyfriend jeans from the menswear section. Men’s and women’s jeans are cut differently owing to anatomical differences.

Since spring is here and summer’s just around the corner, it’s high time to look more relaxed and sport looser silhouettes. I say it’s about time get out of the skinny jean uniform, girls!

The Rule of Thumb When It Comes to Boyfriend Jeans
Simply put, a fitted top looks better with the laidback structure of boyfriend jeans. You can either tuck it into the waistband halfway, or have the top just skim over the waistband. Based on the information you gave, Tori, I believe you have a shorter upper body which is probably why short, fitted tops looked “weird” on you. On the other hand, wearing something too long will throw your visual proportions out of whack. Shop for fitted tops that fall below your natural waistline (the narrowest part of your torso) and skim your hips. Longer garments such as a button-down shirt or a blouse should have a more defined waist and an architectural cut.

Monochromatic Menswear
Depending on the specific shade you bought, gray is a good choice for your boyfriend jeans as warmer days signify a shift towards lighter hues. It also makes for a great neutral canvas to juxtapose saturated colors. For a true menswear vibe, team your gray boyfriend jeans with a fitted V-neck graphic tee and a leather-sleeved jacket, then finish with heeled ankle boots (oxford or bootie style). The vintage vibe can be showcased through your choice of accessories like layered necklaces, a braided belt or a leather satchel. Don’t forget to fold the cuffs of your jeans a little to show off your shoes and a little bit of ankle especially since you’re petite.

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Minty Goodness
I’m all for colored jeans myself, Tori, so that mint green pair is an inspired choice. Whereas your gray pair can work for a street-cool boyish style, this refreshing pair is perfect for a contemporary feminine look. Saturated hues are the go-to colors this spring and summer so jazz up those minties with a print tank or top, a neon cardi or floral hoodie and ballet flats. The shine and saturation really give the look a visual jolt. Give passersby more to look at with hoop earrings and a chic clutch.

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Summer Lovin’
You can also opt to give in to the jeans’ mellow nature and jazz up a distressed pair by layering and mixing lightweight tanks in different colors and textures (stripes and solids, for example), and finishing with gladiator or slingback thong sandals for a different kind of beach chic. A woven tote, an armful of bangles and some chunky necklaces will bring out your inner urban earth goddess.

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Remember:  Love your body and never apologize for who you are.

source: Yesstylist.com

How You Can Easily Make Your Crush Fall in Love with You

Published February 22, 2013 by teacher dahl

fall in love together

Can I Make My Crush Fall in Love With Me? Here is How You Can Easily Make Your Crush Fall in Love with you.

Generally, men/women never fall for those who are too aggressive. Though men/women like to be chased, they still want to feel challenged and make their own move to win the heart of that special person. General rules apply for men and women when it comes to attraction. Choose what will work best through these following suggestions:

Love yourself for your crush to love you in return 
This is a universal rule in attraction. Always show that confidence and never show any signs of dependency or weakness. Men like women who are never afraid of what and who they are and vice versa.

Be patient; take it one step a time 
Assuming that he is still not attracted or caught by the love bug, give him/her time to think about it by reciprocating the interest showed to him. Spend more time with him and make every moment count.

Trying too hard will not make things better
Don’t exert too much to catch his attention. It is also suggested to keep calm and never force the issue. He will notice every single step made and he will learn about it at the right time. Make him fall in love without pre-empting his feelings. Love is best enjoyed when there is a mutual agreement of the situation.

Confidence will never fail you
Always be cool and never show any act of desperation. Men dig women who know what they want and believe in what they do and vice versa. Talk smart, speak eloquently and be sensible in any conversation.

Add a dash of mystery and guessing game

Make him/her become more interested by playing that guessing game. As much as men are thrilled when women don’t show too much about themselves, women also enjoy this set-up. Both genders want challenges and they want to win a boy/girl with their own efforts.

Learn more about him to show that he is desired
Sometimes men like the attention. They are flattered when a woman knows about their favorite food, favorite activities and anything that is important about them.

source:
ezinearticles.com

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