First aid treatment of Wounds and skin diseases

All posts in the First aid treatment of Wounds and skin diseases category

Measles also known as Rubeola

Published January 5, 2014 by teacher dahl

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Measles, also called rubeola, is a highly contagious respiratory infection that’s caused by a virus. It causes a total-body skin rash and flu-like symptoms, including a fever, cough, and runny nose. Though rare in the United States, 20 million cases occur worldwide every year.

Since measles is caused by a virus, there is no specific medical treatment and the virus has to run its course. But a child who is sick should be sure to receive plenty of fluids and rest, and be kept from spreading the infection to others.

What are the symptoms of measles?

Once you are infected with the virus, the virus multiples in the back of your throat and in your lungs. It then spreads throughout your body. The following are the most common symptoms of measles:

  • A high temperature, sore eyes (conjunctivitis), and a runny nose usually occur first.
  • Small white spots usually develop inside the mouth a day or so later. These can persist for several days.
  • A harsh dry cough is usual.
  • Going off food, tiredness, and aches and pains are usual.
  • Diarrhoea and/or vomiting is common.
  • A red blotchy rash normally develops about 3-4 days after the first symptoms. It usually starts on the head and neck, and spreads down the body. It takes 2-3 days to cover most of the body. The rash often turns a brownish colour and gradually fades over a few days.
  • Children are usually quite unwell and miserable for 3-5 days. After this, the fever tends to ease, and then the rash fades. The other symptoms gradually ease and go.

Most children are better within 7-10 days. An irritating cough may persist for several days after other symptoms have gone. The immune system makes antibodies during the infection. These fight off the virus and then provide lifelong immunity. It is therefore rare to have more than one bout of measles.

Measles is highly contagious — 90% of people who haven’t been vaccinated for measles will get it if they live in the same household as an infected person. Measles is spread when someone comes in direct contact with infected droplets or when someone with measles sneezes or coughs and spreads virus droplets through the air.

A person with measles is contagious from 1 to 2 days before symptoms start until about 4 days after the rash appears.

Recent Outbreaks

The Department of Health declared measles outbreaks in five cities in Metro Manila Saturday   (Jan 4, 2014 )as the number of patients infected by the viral disease continues to rise.

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What are the possible complications of measles?
Complications are more likely in children with a poor immune system (such as those with leukaemia or HIV), those who are malnourished, children aged under five years and adults. Many malnourished children in the world die when they get measles, usually from a secondary pneumonia. There are still the occasional reports of children in the UK who die from complications of measles. These children have usually not been immunised.

More common complications include:

Conjunctivitis (eye infection).
Laryngitis (inflammation of the voice box).
Ear infection causing earache.
Infections of the airways, such as bronchitis and croup, which can be common.

What are the possible complications of measles?
Complications are more likely in children with a poor immune system (such as those with leukaemia or HIV), those who are malnourished, children aged under five years and adults. Many malnourished children in the world die when they get measles, usually from a secondary pneumonia. There are still the occasional reports of children in the UK who die from complications of measles. These children have usually not been immunised.

More common complications include:

Conjunctivitis (eye infection).
Laryngitis (inflammation of the voice box).
Ear infection causing earache.
Infections of the airways, such as bronchitis and croup, which can be common.

Vitamin A supplements
Vitamin A supplements have been shown to help prevent serious complications arising from a measles infection. Supplements are generally recommended for children living in a country with a high prevalence of a vitamin A deficiency (this is rare in the UK, but common in the developing world). Treatment with vitamin A may be offered to people with measles.

When to see a doctor?
Most children recover. A doctor will normally confirm that the illness is measles. However, you should see a doctor again if symptoms get worse, or if you suspect a complication (see above).

The main serious symptoms to look out for are:

  • Drowsiness.
  • Dehydration. This may be developing if the child drinks little, passes little urine, has a dry mouth and tongue or becomes drowsy.
  • Breathing difficulties.
  • Convulsion (fit).

Measles immunisation
Immunisation is routine in the UK as part of the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine. Two doses are usual – the first for children aged between 12 and 13 months and the second usually given at age 3 years and 4 months to 5 years. Immunisation gives excellent protection and so measles is now rare in the UK. However, unfortunately, measles is becoming more common again in children in some areas of the UK. This is due to some children not receiving the MMR vaccine.

source : patient.co.uk

Learning about Skin Burns

Published July 21, 2013 by teacher dahl

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Skin

The skin is the largest organ of the body. The skin and its derivatives (hair, nails, sweat and oil glands) make up the integumentary system. One of the main functions of the skin is protection. It protects the body from external factors such as bacteria, chemicals, and temperature.

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Most skin burns are minor and can be managed at home. However, it is important to know the signs of a more serious skin burn, which should be evaluated and treated by a healthcare provider. Moderate to severe burns can cause a number of serious complications and usually require urgent treatment.

This article discusses skin burns caused by steam, hot water or other hot objects in the home, including which burns can be treated at home and those that require evaluation and treatment by a healthcare provider.

There are three levels of burns:

  • First-degree burns affect only the outer layer of the skin. They cause pain, redness, and swelling.
  • Second-degree (partial thickness) burns affect both the outer and underlying layer of skin. They cause pain, redness, swelling, and blistering.
  • Third-degree (full thickness) burns extend into deeper tissues. They cause white or blackened, charred skin that may be numb.

 Overview & Considerations

Before giving first aid, evaluate how extensively burned the person is and try to determine the depth of the most serious part of the burn. Then treat the entire burn accordingly. If in doubt, treat it as a severe burn.

By giving immediate first aid before professional medical help arrives, you can help lessen the severity of the burn. Prompt medical attention to serious burns can help prevent scarring, disability, and deformity. Burns on the face, hands, feet, and genitals can be particularly serious.

Children under age 4 and adults over age 60 have a higher chance of complications and death from severe burns.

In case of a fire, you and the others there are at risk for carbon monoxide poisoning. Anyone with symptoms of headache, numbness, weakness, or chest pain should be tested.

Causes

Burns can be caused by dry heat (like fire), wet heat (such as steam or hot liquids), radiation, friction, heated objects, the sun, electricity, or chemicals.

Thermal burns are the most common type. Thermal burns occur when hot metals, scalding liquids, steam, or flames come in contact with your skin. These are frequently the result of fires, automobile accidents, playing with matches, improperly stored gasoline, space heaters, and electrical malfunctions. Other causes include unsafe handling of firecrackers and kitchen accidents (such as a child climbing on top of a stove or grabbing a hot iron).

Burns to your airways can be caused by inhaling smoke, steam, superheated air, or toxic fumes, often in a poorly ventilated space.

Burns in children are sometimes traced to parental abuse.

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First degree burns affect the outer layer of the skin, causing pain, redness, and swelling.

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First degree burns produce only reddening of the skin. Second degree burns produce blistering, as seen here.

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Third-degree burns extend into deeper tissues, causing brown or blackened skin that may be numb.

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Mild, or first degree burns cause only reddening of the epidermis (outer layer of the skin), as seen in this photograph. Second degree burns cause blistering and extend into the dermis (lower layer of skin). Third degree burns cause tissue death through the dermis and affect underlying tissues.

First Aid

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FOR MINOR BURNS

  1. If the skin is unbroken, run cool water over the area of the burn or soak it in a cool water bath (not ice water). Keep the area submerged for at least 5 minutes. A clean, cold, wet towel will also help reduce pain.

Image2.Calm and reassure the person.

3.After flushing or soaking, cover the burn with a dry, sterile bandage or clean dressing.

ImageProtect the burn from pressure and friction.

Over-the-counter ibuprofen or acetaminophen can help relieve pain and swelling. Do NOT give children under 12 aspirin. Once the skin has cooled, moisturizing lotion also can help.Minor burns will usually heal without further treatment. However, if a second-degree burn covers an area more than 2 to 3 inches in diameter, or if it is located on the hands, feet, face, groin, buttocks, or a major joint, treat the burn as a major burn.Make sure the person is up to date on tetanus immunization.

Do Not
  • Do NOT apply ointment, butter, ice, medications, cream, oil spray, or any household remedy to a severe burn.
  • Do NOT breathe, blow, or cough on the burn.
  • Do NOT disturb blistered or dead skin.
  • Do NOT remove clothing that is stuck to the skin.
  • Do NOT give the person anything by mouth, if there is a severe burn.
  • Do NOT immerse a severe burn in cold water. This can cause shock.
  • Do NOT place a pillow under the person’s head if there is an airways burn. This can close the airways.

SKIN BURN FOLLOW UP

If your burn is not healing, becomes more painful, or appears infected, you should see a healthcare provider.

Most skin burns that are small and superficial will heal within one week and will not usually scar. After a superficial partial-thickness burn, the skin may become darker or lighter in color, but will not usually scar.

Call Immediately for Emergency Medical Assistance if

Call 911 if:

  • The burn is extensive (the size of your palm or larger).
  • The burn is severe (third degree).
  • You aren’t sure how serious it is.
  • The burn is caused by chemicals or electricity.
  • The person shows signs of shock.
  • The person inhaled smoke.
  • Physical abuse is the known or suspected cause of the burn.
  • There are other symptoms associated with the burns

Call a doctor if your pain is still present after 48 hours.

source: health all refer.com

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