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This Is The Psychology Behind The Hidden Agenda Of Supermarkets

Published April 7, 2017 by teacher dahl

choosing pix

We all know that there are certain rules we should follow if we want to shop smart and healthily. Plan your meals. Write a list – and stick to it. Don’t go shopping on an empty stomach. But sometimes you can go in with the best intentions and come out with a family-size block of chocolate and a packet of chips. But you shouldn’t be too mad at yourself for that transgression; turns out supermarkets are specifically designed to trip you up.

A recent study by Live Lighter revealed that 60 per cent of Aussies buy unhealthy foods if they are on sale and in prime positions – such as end-of-aisle displays and at the checkout.

It’s all part of the psychology of supermarkets, which are specifically designed to keep you shopping longer, feeling happier and buying more. According to environmental psychologist Paco Underhill, “Upward of 50 per cent of what we buy in a supermarket we had no intention of buying as we walked in the door.” But how do we get duped time and time again? Here are four sneaky ways the experience of shopping gets you to overbuy.

Smell
Think it’s simply a matter of convenience that those roast chickens are made onsite? Think again – the mouth-watering smell that hits you right as you walk into the store is there to remind you just how hungry you are before you start your shop.

super positioning

Positioning

If you’re just popping in for a bottle of milk, the layout will have you walking right to the very back of the store. The most common items most people purchase – milk, bread and eggs – are often placed at opposite ends of the shop. By making you walk farther, you’re more likely to see something else you ‘need’ on the way. Not to mention the fact that the path to your staples involves walking down aisles full of tempting junk food first.

Music
The supermarket playlist is at its most grating in November, when the Christmas music starts up way too early to get you in that festive (buying) spirit. But those catchy tunes have a purpose the rest of the year, too: a landmark 1982 study of supermarket shoppers found people spent 34 per cent more time shopping when background music was playing.

exit

Entrances and exits
Have you ever noticed that the entrances of most supermarkets are on the right, with the exits on the left? The aim of this is to get you moving counter-clockwise, right to left along the aisles, priming you to pick up things from the right-hand shelves. Exactly where supermarkets place the more expensive items. And it works. According to a discussion on ABC Radio Canberra, counter-clockwise shoppers spend an average of two dollars more per trip than punters moving in a clockwise direction.

So, how can you outsmart the supermarket giants and stop making those impulse purchases? LiveLighter Victoria Campaign Manager Alison McAleese suggests making fewer trips to the supermarket and sticking to the outer aisles to lessen the temptation.

“Steer clear of cheap promotions on junk food and drinks by sticking to the outer aisles of the supermarket where there is a plenty of fresh healthy food like fruit and vegetables,” she says. “Also consider shopping at local markets, greengrocers or butchers where you are less likely to find sales and promotions on processed, high kilojoule food and drinks.” To the farmers’ markets we go!

 

Reference

Too Much TV Tied to Poor Math Scores

Published March 7, 2017 by teacher dahl

watching TV

Kindergartners, who spend more than a couple of hours per day watching television tend to score lower in tests of math and executive function, according to a new study by researchers at New York University’s (NYU) Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development and Université Sainte-Anne in Nova Scotia.

Studies have shown that TV watching is linked to declines in early academic skills, but little is known about how socioeconomic status influences television viewing and child development. In the new study, the researchers looked at whether the negative relationship between watching television and school readiness varied by family income.

“Given that studies have reported that children often watch more than the recommended amount, and the current prevalence of technology such as smartphones and tablets, engaging in screen time may be more frequent now than ever before,” said lead author Andrew Ribner, a doctoral candidate in the Department of Applied Psychology at NYU Steinhardt.

Kid on TV

The researchers analyzed data from 807 kindergartners of diverse backgrounds. Their parents reported family income, as well as the number of hours of television their children watch on a daily basis. Video game, tablet, and smartphone use were not included in the measurement.

Children were assessed using measures of math, knowledge of letters and words, and executive function — key cognitive and social-emotional competencies, including working memory, cognitive flexibility, and inhibitory control, that are viewed as fundamental for school readiness.

The findings show that the number of hours of television young children watch is related to decreases in their school readiness, particularly their math skills and executive function. This association was strongest when children watched more than two hours of television.

As family incomes decreased, the link between television watching and drops in school readiness grew, meaning children from low-income families are more negatively affected by excess television. Those at or near the poverty line (an annual income of around $21,200 for a family of four) saw the largest drop in school readiness when children watched more than two hours of television.

A more modest drop was observed among middle-income families (measured as $74,200 per year for a family of four), while there was no link between school readiness and television viewing in high-income homes (measured as around $127,000 per year for a family of four).

Interestingly, while TV watching was negatively associated with math skills and executive function, a similar link was not found with letter and word knowledge. The researchers hypothesize that TV programming, especially educational programs for children, may help improve literacy among young children in ways that are not found in math.

While the study did not evaluate the type of content the children watched, nor the context of their television viewing, the researchers note that both may play a role in the findings, particularly in explaining why wealthier families seem to be protected from declines in school readiness linked to too much television.
Furthermore, affluent parents with more time and resources may be more likely to watch television with their children, offering explanation and discussion that can promote understanding.

“Our results suggest that the circumstances that surround child screen time can influence its detrimental effects on learning outcomes,” said Dr. Caroline Fitzpatrick of Université Sainte-Anne, who is also an affiliate researcher at Concordia University and a coauthor on the study.

The findings, published in the Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, support current guidelines limiting screen time for young children. In 2001, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommended that children over the age of two watch no more than two hours of television per day.

SOURCE

Popular Baby Care Myths and Reality

Published February 11, 2017 by teacher dahl

nappy-change

Baby Powder Use

Myth: Sprinkle baby powder on your newborn after you change him.
Reality: There’s no need to use powder on your baby’s skin.
Dr. Adesman Explains: “Diaper technology has come a long way, and diapers nowadays are very good at keeping babies dry. Baby powder, especially talc, has a great risk of inhalation and can cause respiratory problems.”

potty-4

Changing Baby’s Diaper

Myth: Never leave an infant in a wet or soiled diaper for more than 20 minutes.
Reality: It’s best to change diapers as soon as they’re wet or soiled, but there is no 20-minute rule.
Dr. Adesman Explains: “Kids are more likely to soil their diapers when they’re awake than when they’re asleep, but if your baby does wet his diaper while sleeping, you don’t need to wake him up to change his diaper. In general, if your baby is awake, for comfort reasons, rash prevention, and to minimize smell, it is best to change his diaper as soon as possible.”

potty-3

Baby’s Bowel Movements

Myth: A baby or child who doesn’t have a bowel movement (BM) every day is likely to be constipated.
Reality: A baby or child can have a BM after each meal or go for days without one and still be “normal.”
Dr. Adesman Explains: “When it comes to their baby’s bowel movements, parents might get used to a certain frequency and get concerned when that pattern changes. Mom and Dad just need to remember that regular doesn’t have to be frequent. As long as there isn’t any difficulty passing them, there generally isn’t great cause to worry.”

potty-2

Potty-Training Timing

Myth: Your child must begin toilet-training no later than 18-24 months of age.
Reality: There is no definite time for toilet-training.
Dr. Adesman Explains: “Some parents love to claim bragging rights when their child becomes toilet-trained earlier. And while there are certainly some reasons why parents might want to accelerate the process, such as economical reasons or day care requirements, toilet-training is a highly variable process. Some kids are just ready earlier than others.”

Potty-Training Pants

Myth: Don’t use disposable training pants — they’ll prolong toilet-training.
Reality: Using disposable training pants is OK.
Dr. Adesman Explains: “Of all the proclamations about toilet-training, I hear this one the most. A good number of children feel good about using training pants and, likewise, parents can feel comfortable with their children using them. They are a positive stepping stone and a nice convenience.”

black-baby

Gender Differences

Myth: Boys are harder to toilet-train than girls.
Reality: It’s no more difficult to train boys, though they might start slightly later.
Dr. Adesman Explains: “There are a few minor gender differences to take into consideration, such as bladder capacity and the fact that Mom is usually the primary caregiver to take the lead on toilet-training. But we are talking about small differences in time — weeks or months, not years. When it comes to toilet-training, little girls and boys are much more similar than different.”

About Dr. Andrew Adesman
Dr. Andrew Adesman is Chief of the Division of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics at Schneider Children’s Hospital in New York and an associate professor in the Pediatrics Department at Albert Einstein College of Medicine. His book Baby Facts reveals more than 200 startling myths and facts about babies’ and young children’s health, growth, care, and more.

Source

Adding Folic Acid to Bread Flour May Prevent Birth Defects

Published January 9, 2017 by teacher dahl

corn-flour
If you’re a Filipina who’s expecting a baby, your diet may be missing a key ingredient believed to help prevent certain kinds of birth defects.
That ingredient? Folic acid, which has long been used to fortify, or strengthen, certain enriched grains.

However, as Jonca Bull, M.D., director of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration’s (FDA) Office of Minority Health notes, “Many Hispanic women don’t benefit from the folic acid in cereal grain products because those products are not a mainstay of their regular diets—which often are bread flour-based.”

This could be a reason why Filipinas represent the highest percentage of U.S. women giving birth to children with neural tube defects (NTDs), according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). NTDs are birth defects of the brain, spine and spinal cord, such as anen¬cephaly and spina bifida.

The FDA has moved to help protect these women and their children by approving the addition of folic acid to corn masa flour, an ingredient in foods including tortillas, tacos, tortilla chips and tamales. Foods made from this flour are staple foods of Mexican and some Central and South American diets.

When consumed by pregnant women before and during pregnancy, folic acid—a B vitamin—may help to prevent neural tube defects.

folic

An Important Preventive Step
In 1998, in response to a recommendation by CDC and the U.S. Public Health Service, FDA made it easier for many expectant mothers to consume folic acid. The agency required the addition of folic acid to standardized enriched cereal grains, such as enriched rice and flour, and standardized enriched cereal grain products, such as enriched bread and macaroni.

Refined grains are enriched when certain B vitamins are added back after processing. Standardized foods contain ingredients required by FDA and are produced in a specified way.

“The reasoning was that enough people—including expectant mothers—eat enriched grains as a matter of course. And that could make a difference in the number of neural tube defects,” says Dennis M. Keefe, Ph.D., director of FDA’s Office of Food Additive Safety. In fact, the number of NTDs in the U.S. for all populations has since declined.
However, the incidence of neural tube defects in some Hispanic American populations has not declined to the same extent as in the general population.

So, FDA reviewed and approved a food additive petition from five organizations—the March of Dimes Foundation, the American Academy of Pediatrics, the Spina Bifida Association, the National Council of La Raza, and Gruma Corporation—requesting that folic acid be added to corn masa flour. Manufacturers may now voluntarily add the amount of folic acid (up to 0.7 milligrams) per pound of corn masa flour that is consistent with the levels in the enriched cereal grains mandated in 1998.

“With this approval, FDA is taking a powerful, preventive public health action,” Bull says. “By adding folic acid to corn masa flour, we have the opportunity to impact a large segment of the U.S. population and protect parents and their children from the devastating birth defects that are linked to insufficient folic acid consumed by the mother before and during pregnancy.”

If You’re Pregnant or Thinking of Becoming Pregnant
CDC recommends that for folic acid to help prevent some major birth defects, a woman should start consuming 400 mcg a day at least one month before she becomes pregnant and the entire time while she is pregnant. For masa, cereals and grain products, read the ingredient statement to see if the food has been enriched with folic acid.

folate

Some easy ways to make sure to get enough folic acid are to:
• Eat a bowl of an enriched breakfast cereal that has 100% of the Daily Value of folic acid.
• Eat other enriched cereal grain products mandated to contain folic acid.
• Take a vitamin or multivitamin supplement that contains folic acid each day.
Talk to your health care provider about what’s best for you.

Expose Children to Vegetables Early and Often

Published May 16, 2016 by teacher dahl

baby n veggies

Exposing infants to a new vegetable early in life encourages them to eat more of it compared to offering novel vegetables to older children, new research from the University of Leeds suggests.

expose babies to vegetables early and often to adopt healthy eating habitsThe researchers, led by Professor Marion Hetherington in the Institute of Psychological Sciences, also found that even fussy eaters are able to eat a bit more of a new vegetable each time they are offered it.

The research, involving babies and children from the UK, France and Denmark, also dispelled the popular myth that vegetable tastes need to be masked or given by stealth in order for children to eat them.

mom kid

Professor Hetherington said: “For parents who wish to encourage healthy eating in their children, our research offers some valuable guidance.

“If you want to encourage your children to eat vegetables, make sure you start early and often. Even if your child is fussy or does not like veggies, our study shows that 5-10 exposures will do the trick.”

In the study, which was funded by the EU, the research team gave artichoke puree to 332 children from three countries aged from weaning age to 38 months. During the experiment each child was given between five and 10 servings of at least 100g of the artichoke puree in one of three versions: basic; sweetened, with added sugar; or added energy, where vegetable oil was mixed into the puree.

There was also little difference in the amounts eaten over time between those who were fed basic puree and those who ate the sweetened puree, which suggests that making vegetables sweeter does not make a significant difference to the amount children eat.

Younger children consumed more artichoke than older children. This is because after 24 months children become reluctant to try new things and start to reject foods – even those they previously liked. Among the children, four distinct groups emerged. Most children (40 percent) were “learners” who increased intake over time. Of the group, 21 percent consumed more than 75 percent of what was offered each time and they were called “plate-clearers”.

plate

Those who ate less than 10g even by the fifth helping were classified as “non-eaters”, amounting to 16 percent of the cohort, and the remainder were classified as “others” (23 percent) since their pattern of intake varied over time. Non-eaters, who tended to be older pre-school children, were the most fussy, the research found.

Globe artichoke was chosen as the sample vegetable because, as part of the research, parents were surveyed and artichoke was one of the least-offered vegetables. NHS guidelines are to start weaning children onto solid foods at six months.

The research has been published in the journal PLOS ONE.

Source: University of Leeds

Twelve (12) facts about Music, and how they affect the Brain

Published May 6, 2015 by teacher dahl

1. goosebumps

The brain can work in ways we can’t comprehend. In numerous studies they have been able to see just how much normal things like music can effect, and even alter, it completely. These facts about music will give you an insight into the complexity of your own mind.

1. The chills you get when you listen to music, is mostly caused by the brain releasing dopamine while anticipating the peak moment of a song.

Dopamine is a feel-good chemical released by the brain. This chemical is directly involved in motivation, as well as addiction. These studies found a biological explanation for why music always has been such a huge part of emotional events around the world since the beginning of human history.

2. brain

2. There are few activities in life that utilizes the entire brain, and music is one of them.

With Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (FMRI), a research team recorded a group of individuals who were listening to music. They found that listening to music recruits the auditory areas, and employs large-scale neural networks in the brain. In fact, they believe music can activate emotional, motor, and creative areas of the brain.

3. Music regularly

3. Playing music regularly will physically alter your brain structure.

Brain plas­tic­ity refers to the brain’s abil­ity to change through­out life. Changes asso­ci­ated with learn­ing occur mostly at the con­nec­tions between neu­rons. When studying musicians, they found that the cor­tex vol­ume was high­est in pro­fes­sional musi­cians, inter­me­di­ate in ama­teur musicians, and lowest in non-musicians.

4. The brain responds to music the same way it responds to something that you eat.

As stated above, dopamine is a chemical released by the brain. This chemical is connected with the feeling of euphoria which is associated with addiction, sex, and even eating. Dopamine is what enables a person to feel the pleasures of such things. A study using only instrumental music proves that anticipation for a musical rush released the same kind of reactions in the brain as anticipating the taste of your food.

4. work out

5. Listening to music while exercising can significantly improve your work-out performance.
Dissociation is a diversionary technique which lowered the perceptions of effort. This technique can divert the mind from feelings of fatigue, and heighten positive mood states like vigor. By using music during low to moderate exercise intensities, you will find yourself with an overall more pleasurable experience while working out.

5. choice

6. An emotional attachment could be the reason for your favorite song choice.

Favorite songs are often context-dependent. Even though many people often change their favorite song depending on the most recent releases, it is proven that long-lasting preferences are due mainly to an emotional attachment to a memory associated with the song.

7. heart beat

7. Your heartbeat changes to mimics the music you listen to.
Music is found to modulate heart rate, blood pressure, and respiration. The cardiovascular system mirrored deflating decrescendos, and swelling crescendos in a study of 24 volunteers. Distinguishing changes in sound patterns were even found to be equipped in those as small as a developing fetus.

8. Listening to happy vs. sad music can affect the way you perceive the world around you.

The brain always compares the information that comes through the eyes with what it expects about the world, based on what you know. The final results in our mind is what we perceive as our reality. Therefore, happy songs that lift your spirits make you see the world around you differently then that of a sad person.

9. An “earworm” is a song that you can’t seem to get out of your head.

An earworm is a cognitive itch in your brain. This “brain itch” is a need for the brain to fill in the gaps in a song’s rhythm. The auditory cortex is a part of your brain that will automatically fill in a rhythm of a song. In other words, your brain kept “singing” long after the song had ended.

10. dopamine

10. Music triggers activity in the same part of the brain that releases Dopamine, the “pleasure chemical”.

The nucleus accumbens is a part of your brain that releases Dopamine during eating, and sex. The most interesting part, is that the nucleus accumbens is just a small part of the brain that gets effected by music. It also effects the amygdala, which is the part of the brain used to process emotion. for music.

11 Patients

11. Music is often prescribed to patients with Parkinson’s disease and stroke victims.
Music therapy has been around for decades. Music triggers networks of neurons into organized movement. The part of the brain the processes movement also overlaps speech networks. These two key elements help patients overcome the obstacles that most effect them such as basic motor skills, and speech difficulties.

12. skill

12. According to a study, Learning a musical instrument can improve fine motor and reasoning skills.
In a study of children, it revealed that those with three or more years of musical training preformed better in fine motor skills and auditory discrimination abilities then those who had none. They even tested better for vocabulary and reasoning skills, even though those are quite separate from music training.

Source: unbelievable-facts.com

20 Amazing Things About Having An Older Brother

Published February 25, 2015 by teacher dahl

Carter and Hayden

Older Brothers are like sweet but sour candy that you can’t get enough of. Even though they sometimes make your eyes twitch and your lips pucker, you can’t seem to resist them.

They tease you and may drive your crazy, but they will also protect you and love you. So we’ve come up with the 20 things to remind girls about the amazing benefits of having an older brother.

1. He taught you how to understand boys and men alike.
Men or boys can be hard to deal with and for a girl, having an elder brother can provide great insight to understanding them. From the time a young lady starts dating, an elder brother can help her navigate through and past a lot of the early misunderstandings she may experience at the start of the relationships.

Having an elder brother and his advice at hand can help you avoid a lot of relationship heartaches. Or, at least, get through them.

2. He taught you how to be patient.
As a sister, you are probably all too familiar with the pranks and goofy games boys play. On a positive note, this taught you how to be patient. Whether its motherhood and parenting or dealing with others, having an elder brother has taught you to not get angry or be frustrated too easily.

3. He showed you how to be tough.
Girls who have older brothers tend to make good fighters, literally and figuratively. You learn to stand up for yourself and make your voice heard. You learn to not get pushed around by anyone.

The wrestling matches you get into with your brother teach you to stay strong and never give up. He might be stronger than you, but you learn to become cunning.

4. He introduced you to sports.
For most young girls, an older brother begins your lifelong obsession with sports or your favorite sports teams. If you are an avid sports enthusiast, chances are, you have a lot of fond memories enjoying watching ball games with your older brother.

5. He taught you how to compete.
Having an older brother is great because he teaches you how to tap into your competitive side. As you try to succeed in any career path, this skill will become an asset.

An older brother gives you great insight into the male dominant world of competition. He will also help develop your self-esteem and leadership skills.

6. He taught you to keep your emotions in check.
It is no secret that girls are typically more emotional than boys. However, girls who grow up with brothers learn to keep their emotions in check.

They learn to “suck it up” and move on. Growing up among boys means you will most likely learn to play the role of comforter in tricky or tragic situations.

7. He taught you chivalry.
Older brothers teach their little sisters exactly how they should be treated by a man. As a little sister, you notice the way he treats your mom or his girlfriend and that in turn creates the standard that you will hold all men who try to date you to.

The way you let men treat you today is probably what you learned from your older brother.

8. He will always protect you.
Sometimes a girl just needs to be protected by her older brother. Like a lion to its cubs, men take on a very protective nature or role when it comes to the well-being of their little sisters.

You don’t have to worry about any creepy men coming around with your older brother in the picture.

9. He looks to you to keep him accountable.
As a little sister, one thing you may not realize is that you help keep your older brother in check and accountable for his actions. Because he knows you are looking up to him, he will probably not do all the dumb things boys are typically knows to do. Just some.

10. You get to be his personal stylist.
You are probably responsible for any kind of style and class your older brother may have. It is no secret that most men don’t know how to dress themselves, so little sisters often take on the role of personal stylist to their older brothers.

11. You teach him compassion.
It is impossible for an older brother to stay mad and upset at his little sister for too long. In this sense, you teach him early on compassion and how to forgive.

No matter what you do, your older brother will always have room in his heart for you.

12. You will never need to hire a mover.
You know all too well that life can get very busy. You move to college, move into a new apartment or need help hauling heavy equipment. No matter what it is, having an older brother means you will never need to hire someone to help you move your stuff.

He is always going to be there to literally help you move the heavy stuff in your life.

13. You will always have a steady stream of good men to date.
Eventually most girls would love to get married. However it can be difficult sometimes to find good men to date. Having an older brother means you will have a steady stream of suitors.

Some may be his friends and others may be guys who try to get to know him as a way to get to know you. Whatever the case, when it comes to dating, having an older brother can be a very productive resource.

14. You got to teach him about girls.
Men typically don’t know much about girls. However your brother has the upper hand to learning just how to treat or talk to a woman.

Whenever he is having girl problems, you know he will always reach out to you for advice. Like he has been there for you to learn about the opposite sex, you have been his source of learning too. And an older brother learns to confide in his little sister.

15. He teaches you self-defense.
In this day and age, it has become increasingly important for girls to know how to use a weapon to protect themselves. More than likely, if you know how to operate a weapon like a gun or a knife, you learned it from your older brother.

16. He takes the brunt of parenting.
Having an older sibling mean someone already absorbed the bad parenting skills of mom and dad. By the time you come around, their skills are more refined and relaxed.

For younger sisters, having an older brother may mean that your parents won’t be so hard on you.

17. He teaches you what’s cool.
From a young age, a girl might turn to her older brother who seems to have more knowledge and expertise about the world. They often, for example, teach you about pop culture and world events.

Having an older brother can be a gateway to learning so much about the world.

18. He’s there to help you financially.
Older brothers love to take on a father figure type role when it comes to their younger sisters. This often means helping them out financially.

For example, since he is older and probably already working, chances are you can ask him for money whenever mom or dad says no.

19. He teaches you to laugh at yourself and be silly.
Life is serious enough, but having an older brother can teach you to enjoy the humor of practical jokes. A lot of times, boys will play pranks.And sometimes you get to be included on those with your brother.
Learning to roll with the punches will teach you to not take life so seriously and be able to laugh at yourself.

20. He is a shoulder to cry on.
Part of the protective nature of an older brother is being a good listener or a comfortable shoulder to cry on. Knowing that you can always count on him to listen without criticism or judgement is the glue that binds little sisters to their older brothers.

Much like the love of a father, an older brother tends to love his little sister unconditionally.
Source: http://www.lifehack.org/articles/communication/20-amazing-things-about-having-older-brother.html

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