Beauty and Fashion

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Hair breakage: Causes and Repair

Published April 27, 2019 by teacher dahl

hair blower

  • People can experience hair breakage that affects all types of hair from straight to curly. It can make hair look frizzy or coarse either at the ends or near the top, or crown, of the head.
    In most cases, hair breakage is temporary, and people can repair their hair and restore its strength by using products and home remedies.What is the cause?
    The following section explores the common causes of hair breakage:

    hair products
    1. Hair products and styling

  • Common causes of hair breakage can include styling and over-brushing.
  • Products that people use for coloring, perming, or relaxing the hair contain chemicals that can weaken the hair and make it more likely to break.
  • Even some shampoos can cause the hair to break, become brittle, or turn frizzy.A 2014 study reported that the acidity, or pH, of a shampoo may affect hair breakage. Certain shampoos are alkaline, or basic, which can cause a negative charge on the hair. This creates more friction between hair strands and can lead to hair breakage.
    Avoiding the application of harsh chemicals to the hair and choosing a shampoo with a neutral pH can improve hair health.

    2. Over-brushing
    Brushing the hair too much can also cause breakage.
    People may not need to brush their hair as much as they think. The American Academy of Dermatology advise only brushing hair as much as people need to style it. Notably, the idea that people should brush their hair with 100 brushstrokes is a myth.

    3. Heat and lack of moisture
    Frequently using heat on the hair can damage the hair shafts and remove the moisture from the hair, which can cause brittle hair and hair breakage.
    Over time, the following heat treatments can damage the hair:

  • blow-dryers
  • straighteners
  • curling tongs
  • Hot weather and humid climates can also dry the hair out and increase the risk of breakage.

People can often avoid and prevent future hair breakage by reducing heat treatments.

4. Towel drying
Rubbing wet hair with a towel can damage the hair, increase frizz, and cause breakage. Wet hair breaks more easily than dry hair.
Instead of rubbing the hair, try wrapping a towel around it to absorb the moisture, or letting it dry naturally in the air.

hair cut
5. Not having regular haircuts
A lack of regular haircuts can result in split ends. These broken ends make the hair more likely to break higher up, nearer the hair shaft.
Getting regular haircuts, even when an individual is growing out their hair, can help to keep hair healthy and strong.
A hairdresser will also be able to give advice for maintaining healthy hair and addressing any current issues people may be experiencing.

6. Diet
balanced diet

Nutrition plays an integral part in promoting healthy hair. If people are deficient in certain nutrients, they may have weakened hair that appears dry, dull, or brittle. Severe nutrient deficiencies may also lead to hair loss.
Eggs and fish contain biotin, which is essential for healthy hair growth, and Brazil nuts offer hair-boosting selenium. Learn about foods for healthy hair growth here.
It is essential that people get a balanced diet that contains plenty of the following:
*omega-3 fatty acids
*protein
*vitamin D
*iron
*zinc
Once people resolve any nutritional deficiencies, they will likely find their hair becomes stronger and healthier again.

7. Tight hairstyles

tight hairstyles
If people are tying their hair back frequently in tight hairstyles, or using elastic bands to tie their hair up, this can lead to hair breakage. Tight hairstyles can stretch or break the hair away from the root.
If people regularly wear their hair in tight styles such as buns, cornrows, or braids, it may lead to a type of hair loss called traction alopecia. Although this is a temporary hair loss that the hair can recover from, it can become permanent if it keeps happening.
Elastic ties can also pull tightly on the hair and increase the risk of breakage. People can switch to covered hair ties and wear their hair in a variety of loose styles to relieve pressure on the hair.
8. Stress
Extreme stress can cause damage to the hair and a condition called telogen effluvium. A severe shock or stress can cause the hair roots to reach the resting stage of their growth cycle before they are meant to and the hair comes loose from the scalp.
Once stress has passed, people will usually find the hair regrows. If people notice unusual amounts of hair shedding, they should see their doctor to check for the underlying cause.

9. Thyroid disorders
brittle hair
             Thyroid disorders can cause hair breakage. If people have a thyroid disorder, they may notice very brittle, dry, and dull hair. Hair can also become thinner, or people may notice excessive shed ng or bald patches.
People with a thyroid disorder may also notice changes to their skin and nails, including the following:

  •  nails crumble or break easily
  •   wounds heal more slowly than usual
  •   deep lines on the palms and soles of the feet
  •    itchy skin

If people notice any of these symptoms, along with fatigue, they should see their doctor to check if they have a thyroid disorder.
10. Eating disorders
Eating disorders can cause breakage to the hair and can lead to hair loss.
The malnutrition and health issues that come from eating disorders can disrupt the natural cycle of hair growth. This disruption can cause hair to break off during the growth phase of the hair cycle, which is called the anagen.

Treating hair breakage

People can often boost the health of their hair by addressing the cause, using hair-strengthening products, or changing their haircare routine.
The following sections look at ways to treat hair breakage:

Change hair care routine
A person should change their hair care routine and use a conditioner to treat hair breakage.
Switching hair care routines can help if hair products or styling methods, such as harsh chemicals or heat treatments, are damaging the hair.      Try air-drying the hair and using gentle products that contain fewer harsh chemicals.People may find switching their hair products to ones that care for damaged hair, restore moisture, and strengthen hair may help to prevent hair breakage.If people swim often, they can use a shampoo and conditioner that specifically restores any damage that chlorine and other chemicals in pools can cause to the hair.
        Use a conditioner
Not using a conditioner after washing hair with shampoo can result in hair damage. A conditioner neutralizes the charge of the hair, which can help to lessen frizz and detangle hair.  Conditioners can also help to increase shine and smoothness of hair, making it more manageable.
  Reduce stress
If stress is the cause of hair breakage, people can arrange to take time to relax and unwind, which can improve the condition of their hair. Read about ways to bust stress here.
   Dietary changes
                 When the hair has lost its strength because of a person’s diet, they can try eating foods that strengthen the hair again. These foods include ones with plenty of protein, omega-3s, iron, biotin, and zinc.

PREVENTION

People can take steps to avoid future hair breakage, including the following:

  • using a conditioner after shampooing hair
  • massaging shampoo into the scalp and rinsing it through the hair, rather than rubbing it in
  • wearing a swimming hat to protect the hair from chlorine and other chemicals in pools
  • washing hair with a specialized swim shampoo after swimming
  • drying hair by wrapping it in a towel or letting it dry naturally
  • letting hair air dry slightly first before blow drying or brushing
  • limiting the use of hot tools on the hair, such as straighteners or curling tongs
  • reducing use of coloring and styling products
  • changing hairstyles often
  • using proper hair bands and tying the hair loosely
  • brushing hair gently, and just enough to style it
  • keeping extensions or weaves in for only 2–3 months at a time
  • eating a balanced diet to ensure the hair is getting all the nutrients it needs

Summary
Reducing or avoiding causes of hair damage and taking steps to care for the hair correctly can help to keep the hair strong and healthy. This can also help to prevent any worsening symptoms, such as hair loss.
If people notice excessive or unusual hair loss, they should see their doctor, as it may signal an underlying health condition.

SOURCE

What you should know about hair dye allergies

Published January 7, 2018 by teacher dahl

ladies colored hairs

When someone has an allergy to hair dye, they are most likely allergic to one of the chemicals in the dye rather than the entire product. The most common cause of these allergic reactions is para-phenylenediamine, also called PPD.
PPD is found in most commercially produced hair dyes. The PPD is usually mixed with peroxide in the dye to alter the hair color. What happens before this reaction is fully complete also makes the PPD more likely to interact with the skin and cause an allergic reaction.
PPD can be found in commercial hair dyes under many alternative names. These include names such as PPDA, 1,4-Benzenediamine, and Phenylenediamine base.
Another common chemical found in hair dye is para-toluenediamine (PTD), which can be tolerated better than PPD but may still cause an allergic reaction in many people.

PPD
Fast facts on hair dye allergy:
The most common symptom of a hair dye allergy is contact dermatitis.
A quick reaction to the first signs of a hair dye allergy can make all the difference.
Gentle moisturizers may help relieve symptoms of dry or itchy skin.

Hair dye allergy symptoms
PPD may be the most common cause of allergic reactions to hair dye.
Allergic contact dermatitis is a reaction caused by the skin being touched by something it is allergic to. Once sensitized, the affected skin will usually become inflamed and red when exposed to the offending allergen.
The scalp, ears, beard, or neck may become red and inflamed. The eyes also may itch, and the eyelids may swell as the reaction develops.
Most contact dermatitis from a hair dye allergy is classified as type 4 hypersensitivity, and it usually takes hours or more for symptoms to occur upon exposure.
Hives may also show up after a hair dye application. The symptoms of these are red, raised, and itchy patches on the body. Someone may experience difficulty swallowing and respiratory problems, such as wheezing and sneezing.

Anaphylactic shock
It is also possible, but far less common, for someone to have an immediate, anaphylactic allergic reaction or type 1 hypersensitivity to hair dye, leading up to anaphylactic shock.
Symptoms may include hives, swelling of the face and airways, shortness of breath, and a drop in blood pressure with a fast heart rate and possibly loss of consciousness. Anaphylactic shock can be fatal, and anyone experiencing these symptoms needs immediate medical attention.

Diagnosis
One of the difficulties in identifying a reaction to PPD is that symptoms typically will not show up until after the second usage of the product.
The body becomes allergically sensitized to an invading substance the first time it is used. Once it is applied a second time, reactions will often start to appear. Reactions may also get worse with more applications of the product.
Hair dye intolerance

contact derm
Non-allergic contact dermatitis may affect people who are not allergic to hair dye.
It is also possible for people who are not allergic to hair dye to react when using it, leading to non-allergic contact dermatitis or other symptoms.
Some skin types are more sensitive to chemicals, including PPD. This type of reaction may be more common when someone switches brands with different dye formulations.
Most people will find that their skin may become dry, stretched, or cracked. The scalp may tighten or feel as if it is burning.
Symptoms of irritation will usually appear within 48 hours. At the same time, many people with a hair dye intolerance may have an almost immediate reaction to PPD or other hair dye components.

Treatment for hair dye allergy
If any symptoms of a hair dye allergy show up, the hair should be washed immediately. The excess dye can be removed through multiple gentle washes with a mild soap and plenty of rinses with clean water.
*Hydrogen peroxide
It may also help to rinse the hair with a solution of 2 percent hydrogen peroxide after washing the excess out. This helps to oxidize the PPD fully and make it non-reactive. This step has mixed results, and it should be avoided if it makes symptoms worse.
*Steroid creams may be used to reduce inflammation with swelling and irritation in cases of stronger allergic reactions.
Some over-the-counter steroid creams may work well enough to manage symptoms if they are less severe. However, more severe allergic reactions may require a prescription steroid cream or possibly oral steroid therapy.

How long do symptoms last?
Symptoms of hypersensitivity to hair dye may last anywhere from a few days to a week or more, depending on the severity of the reaction.

Synthetic and natural alternatives to PPD
Many alternatives to PPD-containing hair dyes are on the market, though color options may be more limited.
They are PPD-related chemicals, such as hydroxyethyl-p-phenylenediamine sulfate (HPPS), or they do not contain PPD at all, and they work by getting deep into the hair and staining it. Some of these alternative dyes are only available in limited ranges of color, so they may not work for everyone.
Henna
Henna is another option for people looking to avoid irritating PPD. True henna is made from crushed plant matter.
Henna usually ranges from an orangish to red-brown color, depending on the other ingredients in it and how it is prepared before it is applied.
Henna is considered to be more allergy-friendly, though there is still the possibility of reacting. A patch test should be used for any henna-containing dye if someone wants to be sure.
It is also crucial to be certain the henna is in fact true henna. Many companies add PPD or its derivatives to their henna-containing hair dyes and market it as henna. These may still cause a PPD-related reaction.

Semi-permanent and lead-containing dyes
Some people can tolerate semi-permanent hair dyes or lead-based hair dyes, though these options may not be right for everyone. A dermatologist can help determine any chemicals that may be right for every individual they test.

Avoiding a reaction
Avoiding a reaction to hair dyes is easy if a few steps are followed. Any or all of these methods can be used to help test for reactions or avoid them
General precautions

gloves
Using gloves for hair dye allergy
It is recommended to use gloves when handling hair dye.
The instructions for each particular dye should be followed closely to help prevent any reactions caused by incorrect usage.
It is important not to leave hair dye in for longer than recommended. While most chemicals in hair dye are considered safe to use, leaving the chemicals on the scalp for too long can be irritating for most people.
Gloves should be worn whenever handling or applying hair dye.
Typically, for permanent dye, the hair and scalp should be washed thoroughly after the application is complete. Poor washing and rinsing leave bits of dye on the hair and scalp. This could cause irritation if the unnecessary dye is left reacting on the scalp longer than necessary. Additional washes and rinses may be required to be certain all the extra dye is washed off the hair and scalp.

Patch tests
Patch tests are done by a doctor and involve putting small, precise amounts of allergen substances in chambers on a small portion of the skin, usually the upper back, to check for allergic reactions.
With oxidizing hair dyes, a person can do an at-home test in a similar way, using the hair dye mixture. One of the simplest places to test is just behind the ear. Following the dye’s instructions on what to do after applying the dye is the best way to ensure a proper test.
Any irritation, reaction, or feeling of being unwell is a sign that the rest of a person’s scalp will have a bad reaction to the product. The product should be avoided in favor of another kind of dye.
Allergy clinics
If home patch testing or hair dyeing become a regular necessity, many people choose to go to an allergy clinic. Allergy clinics can do their own patch test to help determine what chemicals a person is intolerant of or allergic to. The list of possible irritants can then be checked against the ingredients of hair dyes to find the best one for their use.
Takeaway
Any potentially irritating chemicals should be avoided. A person should be tested to ensure they are not allergic to a chemical or chemicals in hair dye to prevent a reaction. Avoiding further use of the product is key to preventing the recurrence of an allergic reaction.

Reference

Look Younger : Secrets that Work

Published March 17, 2017 by teacher dahl

Primer

Start With Primer
If you’re old enough for laugh lines, a skin care makeover can give you a fresher, younger look. Our skin dries and thins with age, so products used five years ago may look quite matronly today. A better routine calls for skin primer, according to Robin Rylant, a celebrity makeup artist who’s worked with Celine Dion. A high-quality primer fills in small wrinkles, making them less visible.

Forgo Thick Foundation
If you still slather foundation directly over aging skin, you’re likely adding years to your look. That thick top coat tends to break into deep cracks, which look far worse than the fine lines you’re trying to hide. Instead, apply moisturizer, primer, then a light liquid foundation for additional skin-plumping moisture. Ryland suggests tapping it in gently with a sponge, rather than rubbing it in.

clown eyes
Avoid Clown Eyes
Applying flattering eye makeup requires precision. Unfortunately, eyesight tends to decline with age. “If you don’t see as well, you may not get the makeup on correctly,” Ryant says. The results can include clownish amounts of eye shadow or crooked eyeliner. The solution: “Get yourself a good magnifying mirror.”

Enhance the Shape of the Eye
As we age, the eyelids tend to droop, so the goal is to draw attention away from the lid and toward the actual eye. Eyeliner is the key. Apply it in a thin streak along the line where the lashes begin, top and bottom. This will enhance the shape of your eye and create the illusion of thicker lashes. Use soft shades and a light touch when applying eye shadow.

enhance
Put Eyebrows Back On
“Eyebrows are extremely important because they frame the face,” Ryant says. But the brows tend to grow thinner and grayer with age. To “put eyebrows back on,” Ryant recommends using eyebrow pencil that complements your hair color. Placing powder over the pencil will help it stay put. Some people choose to have eyebrows permanently tattooed, but the FDA and Consumer Reports has raised safety concerns about this practice.

bleeding lips

No Bleeding Lipstick

Don’t Let the Lips ‘Bleed’
Few things draw attention to wrinkles like bleeding lip color. This happens because lipstick is a cream, and it tends to slip into any low spaces — including the lines around your lips. To keep color from traveling, use moisturizer, then coat the lips with foundation before applying lipstick.

whiten teeth
Whiten Stained Teeth
Whitening toothpastes can help remove surface stains so your teeth look about one shade lighter. To go deeper, try peroxide-based whitening gels or strips. These products bleach the enamel of your teeth to change your natural tooth color. For the most dramatic results, an in-office treatment with your dentist can make the teeth visibly whiter in less than an hour. Several treatments may be needed to get the desired shade.

tired eyes

Rejuvenate Tired Eyes
If your eyes look tired, the most obvious solution may be to get more rest. Sleep triggers the release of hormones that help the skin remain thicker and more elastic. To reduce eye puffiness, cut back on salt and stay well hydrated. You can also try soothing swollen eyes with cool cucumber slices or moist tea bags.

dark circles

Reduce Dark Circles
Getting enough sleep can also minimize dark circles under the eyes. But in some people, the discoloration comes from too much pigmentation in the skin. In that case, creams containing lightening agents such as retinol, hydroquinone, green tea, or vitamin C may help. To camouflage dark circles, use a concealer one shade lighter than your skin and yellowish in tone. Wear SPF 30 sunscreen daily.

boosts thin hair
Boost Thinning Hair
You can give thinning hair the illusion of more body with some simple styling tricks. Use a large round brush to lift the hair and add volume. To set the style, use the cool button on your hairdryer. Styling with hot rollers is another good option. If you’re looking for a low-maintenance way to add body, Ryant suggests a perm.

pamper hands

Pamper Your Hands
The skin on the hands has very little fatty tissue underneath and can easily become crinkled when dry. Applying moisturizer throughout the day can draw water into the skin to help hands look plumper and more youthful. Look for a moisturizer that contains glycerin, hyaluronic acid, shea butter, or safflower seed oil. You can also use lightening creams to fade age spots on the hands.

dont smoke

Don’t Smoke
One of the surest ways to protect against skin damage is to avoid cigarettes. Studies of twins suggest smokers have skin that is more wrinkled and up to 40% thinner than nonsmokers. Researchers believe tobacco smoke releases an enzyme that breaks down collagen and elastin, compounds that are vital to the skin’s structure and elasticity.

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