20 Amazing Things About Having An Older Brother

Published February 25, 2015 by by : teacherdahl

Carter and Hayden

Older Brothers are like sweet but sour candy that you can’t get enough of. Even though they sometimes make your eyes twitch and your lips pucker, you can’t seem to resist them.

They tease you and may drive your crazy, but they will also protect you and love you. So we’ve come up with the 20 things to remind girls about the amazing benefits of having an older brother.

1. He taught you how to understand boys and men alike.
Men or boys can be hard to deal with and for a girl, having an elder brother can provide great insight to understanding them. From the time a young lady starts dating, an elder brother can help her navigate through and past a lot of the early misunderstandings she may experience at the start of the relationships.

Having an elder brother and his advice at hand can help you avoid a lot of relationship heartaches. Or, at least, get through them.

2. He taught you how to be patient.
As a sister, you are probably all too familiar with the pranks and goofy games boys play. On a positive note, this taught you how to be patient. Whether its motherhood and parenting or dealing with others, having an elder brother has taught you to not get angry or be frustrated too easily.

3. He showed you how to be tough.
Girls who have older brothers tend to make good fighters, literally and figuratively. You learn to stand up for yourself and make your voice heard. You learn to not get pushed around by anyone.

The wrestling matches you get into with your brother teach you to stay strong and never give up. He might be stronger than you, but you learn to become cunning.

4. He introduced you to sports.
For most young girls, an older brother begins your lifelong obsession with sports or your favorite sports teams. If you are an avid sports enthusiast, chances are, you have a lot of fond memories enjoying watching ball games with your older brother.

5. He taught you how to compete.
Having an older brother is great because he teaches you how to tap into your competitive side. As you try to succeed in any career path, this skill will become an asset.

An older brother gives you great insight into the male dominant world of competition. He will also help develop your self-esteem and leadership skills.

6. He taught you to keep your emotions in check.
It is no secret that girls are typically more emotional than boys. However, girls who grow up with brothers learn to keep their emotions in check.

They learn to “suck it up” and move on. Growing up among boys means you will most likely learn to play the role of comforter in tricky or tragic situations.

7. He taught you chivalry.
Older brothers teach their little sisters exactly how they should be treated by a man. As a little sister, you notice the way he treats your mom or his girlfriend and that in turn creates the standard that you will hold all men who try to date you to.

The way you let men treat you today is probably what you learned from your older brother.

8. He will always protect you.
Sometimes a girl just needs to be protected by her older brother. Like a lion to its cubs, men take on a very protective nature or role when it comes to the well-being of their little sisters.

You don’t have to worry about any creepy men coming around with your older brother in the picture.

9. He looks to you to keep him accountable.
As a little sister, one thing you may not realize is that you help keep your older brother in check and accountable for his actions. Because he knows you are looking up to him, he will probably not do all the dumb things boys are typically knows to do. Just some.

10. You get to be his personal stylist.
You are probably responsible for any kind of style and class your older brother may have. It is no secret that most men don’t know how to dress themselves, so little sisters often take on the role of personal stylist to their older brothers.

11. You teach him compassion.
It is impossible for an older brother to stay mad and upset at his little sister for too long. In this sense, you teach him early on compassion and how to forgive.

No matter what you do, your older brother will always have room in his heart for you.

12. You will never need to hire a mover.
You know all too well that life can get very busy. You move to college, move into a new apartment or need help hauling heavy equipment. No matter what it is, having an older brother means you will never need to hire someone to help you move your stuff.

He is always going to be there to literally help you move the heavy stuff in your life.

13. You will always have a steady stream of good men to date.
Eventually most girls would love to get married. However it can be difficult sometimes to find good men to date. Having an older brother means you will have a steady stream of suitors.

Some may be his friends and others may be guys who try to get to know him as a way to get to know you. Whatever the case, when it comes to dating, having an older brother can be a very productive resource.

14. You got to teach him about girls.
Men typically don’t know much about girls. However your brother has the upper hand to learning just how to treat or talk to a woman.

Whenever he is having girl problems, you know he will always reach out to you for advice. Like he has been there for you to learn about the opposite sex, you have been his source of learning too. And an older brother learns to confide in his little sister.

15. He teaches you self-defense.
In this day and age, it has become increasingly important for girls to know how to use a weapon to protect themselves. More than likely, if you know how to operate a weapon like a gun or a knife, you learned it from your older brother.

16. He takes the brunt of parenting.
Having an older sibling mean someone already absorbed the bad parenting skills of mom and dad. By the time you come around, their skills are more refined and relaxed.

For younger sisters, having an older brother may mean that your parents won’t be so hard on you.

17. He teaches you what’s cool.
From a young age, a girl might turn to her older brother who seems to have more knowledge and expertise about the world. They often, for example, teach you about pop culture and world events.

Having an older brother can be a gateway to learning so much about the world.

18. He’s there to help you financially.
Older brothers love to take on a father figure type role when it comes to their younger sisters. This often means helping them out financially.

For example, since he is older and probably already working, chances are you can ask him for money whenever mom or dad says no.

19. He teaches you to laugh at yourself and be silly.
Life is serious enough, but having an older brother can teach you to enjoy the humor of practical jokes. A lot of times, boys will play pranks.And sometimes you get to be included on those with your brother.
Learning to roll with the punches will teach you to not take life so seriously and be able to laugh at yourself.

20. He is a shoulder to cry on.
Part of the protective nature of an older brother is being a good listener or a comfortable shoulder to cry on. Knowing that you can always count on him to listen without criticism or judgement is the glue that binds little sisters to their older brothers.

Much like the love of a father, an older brother tends to love his little sister unconditionally.
Source: http://www.lifehack.org/articles/communication/20-amazing-things-about-having-older-brother.html

Mumps Cases and Outbreaks

Published February 24, 2015 by by : teacherdahl

mumps

Mumps Outbreaks
In some years, there are more cases of mumps than usual because of outbreaks. Mumps outbreaks can occur any time of year but often occur in winter and spring. A major factor contributing to outbreaks is being in a crowded environment, such as attending the same class, playing on the same sports team, or living in a dormitory with a person who has mumps.

Although the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine is very effective, protection against mumps is not complete. Two doses of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine are 88% effective at protecting against mumps; one dose is 78% effective. Outbreaks can still occur in highly vaccinated U.S. communities, particularly in close-contact settings. In recent years, outbreaks have occurred in schools, colleges, and camps. However, high vaccination coverage helps limit the size, duration, and spread of mumps outbreaks.

mumps text

Mumps – Vaccine Q&A
For Parents

  • Is there a vaccine to prevent mumps?
    Yes. Two doses of mumps-containing vaccine, given as combination measles, mumps, rubella (MMR) vaccine, separated by at least 28 days, are routinely recommended for all children. The first dose is given on or after the first birthday; the second is given at 4 – 6 years of age. MMR is a live, weakened (attenuated) vaccine. Most adults who have not been vaccinated should also receive 1 dose of MMR vaccine, but adults who work in healthcare, a school/university setting, and persons at high risk of exposure to mumps should get 2 doses. Pregnant women and persons with an impaired immune system should not receive live attenuated vaccines (MMR vaccine).
  • Is the vaccine effective/does it work?
    One dose of mumps vaccine will ‘take’ (be effective) in approximately 80% of people vaccinated, but two doses of mumps vaccine will ‘take’ in approximately 90% of people. Therefore, two doses are better at preventing mumps than one dose.
  • Where can I get the vaccine?
    Most family and pediatric doctors keep vaccine in their clinics; and local health departments usually have vaccine.

Mumps kid

Up to half of people who get mumps have very mild or no symptoms, and therefore do not know they were infected with mumps.

The most common symptoms include:

  • Fever
  • Headache
  • Muscle aches
  • Tiredness
  • Loss of appetite
  • Swollen and tender salivary glands under the ears on one or both sides (parotitis)

Symptoms typically appear 16-18 days after infection, but this period can range from 12-25 days after infection.

What should I do if I don’t know if I’ve been vaccinated?

Get vaccinated. The MMR vaccine is safe and there is no increased risk of side effects if a person gets another vaccination.
If I had mumps as a child, can I get it again/should I get vaccinated?
Most people who have mumps will be protected (immune) from getting mumps again. There is a small percent of people though, who could get reinfected with mumps and have a milder illness. If mumps was not diagnosed by a physician, then that person is not considered immune and vaccination is recommended.

If I was exposed to someone with mumps, what should I do?
Not everyone who is exposed to someone with mumps will get sick. If a person has been vaccinated with two doses of mumps vaccine, it is very unlikely they will get mumps. However, if a person hasn’t been vaccinated, it is possible they could get sick and they should watch for symptoms of mumps. Additionally, if a person hasn’t been vaccinated, this is a good time to get another dose of mumps vaccine, and to make sure that everyone else in the house where they live is also vaccinated.

Mumps vaccine has not been shown to be effective in preventing disease after exposure, but vaccination of exposed susceptible persons will reduce the risk of disease from possible future exposures. If symptoms develop (generally 16-18 days after exposure), the person should not go to school or work for at least 5 days and should contact their medical provider.

Source: http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/mumps.html

Ten (10) Interesting Facts about Chinese New Year

Published February 18, 2015 by by : teacherdahl

Feminine touch greetings

1) Here’s how to say  “Happy New Year” in Chinese :  “Xīnnián kuàilè”    新年快乐

That’s /sshin-nyen kwhy-luh/. Now you know how to pronounce it too!

2) The date varies!

The date for Chinese New Year changes each year. It always falls between January 21 and February 20, determined by the Chinese lunar calendar.

3) The holiday season is oddly called “Spring Festival”.
Though in winter, Chinese call their New Year holidays ‘Spring Festival’ (春节 chūnjié /chwnn-jyeah/), because ‘Start of Spring’ (4–18 February) is the first of the terms in their traditional solar calendar. While wintry weather prevails, ‘Start of Spring’ marks the end of the coldest part of winter, when the Chinese traditionally could look forward to the beginning of spring.

4) It is a festival for 1/3 of the world’s population
A crowded Chinese train station at New YearA crowded Chinese train station at New Year
It’s China’s winter vacation week, like between Christmas and New Year’s Day other countries.Schools in China get about a month off, and universities even more.

China, Hong Kong and Macau, and nine other Asian countries;have public holidays.

  • China: 1.3 billion in China get three days of public holiday.
  • Indonesia: 250 million people in Indonesia get one day of public holiday.
  • Philippines: 100 million get one day of public holiday.
  • Vietnam: 90 million people get at least three days of public holidays, but the holidays sometimes extends for an entire week by taking away weekends, as in China.
  • South Korea: 50 million people get three days of public holiday.
  • Malaysia: 30 million people get one day of public holiday.
  • North Korea: 24 million people get three days of public holiday.
  • Taiwan: 24 million people get four days of public holiday generally.
  • Brunei: One day of public holiday.
  • Singapore: Two days of public holiday.
  • Hong Kong: Three days of public holidays, extending to four days if the holidays fall on a Sunday.
  • Macau: Three days of public holiday, extending to four days if the holidays fall on a Sunday.

hong bao

5) Billions of red envelopes are exchanged.
Chinese New Year Red EnvelopesChinese New Year red envelopes (“hong bao”)
These red envelopes with cash are given out from older to younger, from bosses to employees, and from leaders to underlings. It is a special New Year’s bonus. Read more on how to give Chinese New Year lucky money (red envelopes)

6) It’s big in London and HK.
500 thousand people converged for Chinese New Year in London’s Chinatown, Trafalgar Square, and central London streets in 2013.

In Hong Kong, a big holiday custom is horse racing:The most popular races of all in the city happens on the third day of the Spring Festival holidays when 100,000 excited fans crowd into Sha Tin Racecourse. The spectators watch a grand opening show, a featured lion dance, and a variety of cultural performances and entertainment.

7) 1/3 of the world’s population are is the move
200 million Mainland Chinese travel for these holidays, and it is estimated that there are 3.5 billion journeys in China. For comparison, less than 100 million people travel more than 50 miles during the Christmas holidays in the US according to the American Automobile Association.

Tens of millions of people travel in other countries too. In Korea, 30 million people visited their hometowns in 2013.

lantern festival

8) The Lantern Festival once ended 16 days of festivities.
The Lantern FestivalLanterns for the Lantern Festival
Traditionally, the 16 days from New Year’s Eve until the Lantern Festival each had a special celebration activity.

The Lantern Festival: In the evening of 15th day of the first lunar month, on the night of the full moon, families gather for dinner and go out and see fireworks and light lanterns. Lanterns are put up for decoration, let loose to fly, and floated in rivers.

Ice lanterns shine in Harbin: High-tech giant ones glow with beautiful colors. Thousands of traditional smaller ones are lit also.

9) Every Chinese New Year   starts a new animal zodiac year.
Chinese zodiac years: A very old custom is to name the years by one of 12 animals in their zodiac cycle.

For example, 2015 is a year of the Goat. Many Chinese still believe in astrology and other New Year superstitions.

People focus on priorities: making amends, reconciling with people, avoiding offence, and re-establishing old ties. They buy and wear new clothes, give gifts, and clean house.

works

10) There is the world’s biggest annual fireworks usage.
Fireworks above Victoria HarborHong Kong blazes with fireworks and lights dance on the buildings.
No single hour in any other country sees as many tons of fireworks lighted as in China around midnight. China produces about 90% of the world’s fireworks.

Fireworks are used to scare evil spirits: Most mainland Chinese believe that the flash and bang of firecrackers and fireworks scare away demons and evil ghosts.

From Feminine Touch Admin………”Xīnnián kuàilè”    新年快乐

Babies Understand Friendship, Meanies and Bystanders

Published February 11, 2015 by by : teacherdahl

babies

Babies who are just over a year old already comprehend complex social interactions — they understand what other people know and don’t know, and expect them to behave accordingly, new research shows.

In the new study, 13-month-olds who watched a puppet show in which one character witnessed another behaving badly expected the witness to shun the villain. But the babies did not expect a shunning if the villain acted badly when the witness wasn’t looking.

Even at this young age, the babies were mostly very intrigued by the drama, said Yuyan Luo a psychologist at the University of Missouri and co-author of the study.

“Almost all babies look really concerned when they see the puppet violence,” Luo told Live Science.

Social smarts

In the study, the two characters — call them A and B — interacted in a friendly manner, but then B hit a third character, C.

“Babies think A should do something about it if they see B do something bad,” Luo said

Before they can even talk and walk, babies seem to exhibit social savvy, research shows. At around 8 months old, infants like to see wrongdoers punished, and they may develop sympathy for victims of bullying by 10 months of age.

Likewise, even very young babies seem to understand others’ perspectives, a talent called “theory of mind.” Although researchers once thought that theory of mind did not develop until the preschool years, more-recent studies suggest that it begins to emerge by 7 months to 18 months of age.

from: Live Science

Takayasu Disease (Takayasu’s Arteritis)

Published January 25, 2015 by by : teacherdahl

TAK pix

Takayasu’s arteritis, also called TAK, is a rare disease involving inflammation in the walls of the largest arteries in the body: the aorta and its main branches. The disease results from an attack by the body’s own immune system, causing inflammation in the walls of arteries. The inflammation leads to narrowing of the arteries, and this can reduce blood flow to many parts of the body.

TAK can result in a weak pulse or loss of pulse in arms, legs and organs. For this reason, people used to refer to the illness as “pulseless disease.”

FAST FACTS

  • TAK is much more common in women than men.
  • The disease most often starts in young adults, but children and middle-aged people may get it, too.
  • Doctors find TAK on angiograms. Angiograms are types of X-ray tests that look at arteries. In TAK, angiograms show narrowing of large arteries.
  • Narrowed or blocked arteries cause problems that range from mild to serious.
  • Treatment of TAK almost always includes glucocorticoids (prednisone and others), which help reduce the inflammation.
  • Patients also may be prescribed other medications that suppress the immune system.

    WHAT IS TAKAYASU’S ARTERITIS?
    This disease is one of many types of vasculitis. Vasculitis refers to inflammation of blood vessels, and arteries are a type of blood vessel. In TAK, this inflammation occurs in the walls of large arteries: the aorta and its main branches. These blood vessels supply blood to the head, arms, legs and internal organs, such as the kidneys. Inflammation may cause the vessels’ walls to thicken. With time, this thickening results in a narrowing inside the artery, called a “stenosis.” If severe enough, such narrowing can reduce blood flow and result in less oxygen sent to the body parts or organs that the artery supplies.

Stenosis can cause symptoms (what you feel) and problems ranging from annoying to dangerous:

  • Pain with use of an arm or leg (called “claudication”)
  • Dizziness, headaches or fainting
  • Weakness and fatigue
  • High blood pressure
  • Chest pain
  • Heart attack
  • Stroke
    Stenosis occurs slowly with time, and smaller vessels may grow and expand to carry blood around the blockage. These new vessels are called “collateral vessels.” Collateral vessels may help prevent major organ damage.

Sometimes inflammation in the artery weakens the vessel wall, causing vessel expansion rather than narrowing (stenosis). This expansion is called an aneurysm (a bulge in the artery). The aorta as it emerges from the heart is one of the more common areas where an aneurysm can form. An aneurysm in the aorta might lead to heart valve dysfunction or rupture (bursting) of the aorta.

WHAT CAUSES TAKAYASU’S ARTERITIS?
As with most types of vasculitis, the cause of TAK is not known. It is rare to see more than one case in a family and the role of genetics is unclear. A link between TAK and an infection has also not been proven.

TAK is thought to be an autoimmune disease, which means that the body comes under attack by its own immune system. In TAK, the immune system is attacking the blood vessels.

juvenile arthritis pix

WHO GETS TAKAYASU’S ARTERITIS?
TAK is rare, affecting perhaps one in 200,000 people. It most often occurs in people ages 15–40 years, but sometimes affects younger children or middle-aged adults. Nine of 10 patients are female. TAK seems to be more common in East Asia, India and, perhaps, Latin America, than in other regions. Yet, it is rare even in these regions and occurs in a wide range of ethnic groups.

HOW IS TAKAYASU’S ARTERITIS DIAGNOSED?
Doctors most often find TAK on an angiogram, a test that shows how well blood flows in arteries. A doctor often orders an angiogram when a patient has symptoms and abnormal results of the physical exam. These include loss of pulse or low blood pressure in an arm, or abnormal sounds (“bruits”) heard over large arteries with a stethoscope.

There are various types of angiograms, including standard ones that involve injection of dye directly into an artery while X-ray test are taken. Less invasive types of angiography use another imaging technique such as computed tomography, and this is CT angiography or CTA. When MRI—magnetic resonance imaging— is used, it is called magnetic resonance angiography or MRA.

Angiograms may show narrowing of one or more large arteries. It is important for the doctor to try to distinguish between narrowing due to vasculitis (inflammation of arteries) and narrowing due to atherosclerosis (“hardening” of the arteries). At times, this can be challenging. There are other causes of arterial narrowing as well, including fibromuscular dysplasia, another rare disease that mainly affects women.

Large arteries can also become inflamed in a few other diseases. Examples include other types of vasculitis: giant cell arteritis (a disease of older adults), relapsing polychondritis, Cogan’s syndrome and Behçet’s disease. Some infections can also cause inflammation in large arteries.

Blood tests for inflammation include measurements of the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (sometimes referred to as the “sed rate” or ESR) and C-reactive protein (often called CRP). Results of these tests are often, but not always, high in patients with TAK. However, these tests are also abnormal in a large number of other inflammatory diseases. Patients with TAK may also have anemia due to chronic (long-term) inflammation. Anemia is also tested for with a blood test. None of these blood tests can tell you for sure if you have TAK, and these blood tests may be abnormal in many other diseases.

Patients with TAK may have no symptoms, and the disease is so rare that doctors may not easily recognize it. Thus, there is often a delay in detecting it, sometimes several years.

HOW IS TAKAYASU’S ARTERITIS TREATED?
TAK most often needs treatment to prevent further narrowing of affected arteries. Yet, the narrowing that has already occurred often does not improve, even with drug treatment.

  • Glucocorticoids (prednisone, prednisolone or others), often referred to as “steroids,” are an important part of treatment. The dose and length of treatment depend on how bad the disease is and how long the patient has had it. However, these drugs can have long-term side effects.
  • Doctors sometimes prescribe immune-suppressing drugs because their side effects may be less serious than those of glucocorticoids. This is called “steroid-sparing” treatment. These medicines include methotrexate, azathioprine, mycophenolate mofetil, cyclophosphamide and drugs that block tumor necrosis factor (such as etanercept, adalimumab or infliximab). Doctors frequently prescribe these drugs to treat other rheumatic diseases, but they also use them to treat TAK. There is not enough proof that these drugs are definitely effective in treating TAK. Research studies are ongoing to find new drugs to treat TAK.
  • Some experts advise routine use of low-dose aspirin. The thought is that it will help prevent blood clots from forming in damaged arteries.

Therapy for TAK also includes screening for high blood pressure and high cholesterol, and treatment if these problems are present.

Lasting damage to arteries sometimes needs a vascular procedure or surgical treatment. This may involve angioplasty (widening a narrowed or blocked blood vessel), with or without placement of a stent, to prop open the vessel. Another treatment option is bypass grafting, a surgery to redirect blood flow around a blockage in a blood vessel.

WHAT IS THE BROADER HEALTH IMPACT OF TAKAYASU’S ARTERITIS?
Because TAK can cause heart problems, high blood pressure and stroke, patients with TAK should talk to their doctor about ways to lower the risk of these serious problems.

LIVING WITH TAKAYASU’S ARTERITIS
TAK is a chronic disease and may need long-term treatment. Some patients have no symptoms or only mild symptoms, but others are disabled or need surgery more than once. Side effects from medicines, mainly glucocorticoids, can be troubling. Patients taking immunosuppressants are at risk of infections.

Blood pressure measurement is often not correct (falsely low due to blocked arteries) in the arm. So, your health care provider may need to measure your blood pressure in a leg.

The disease can recur after treatment or can silently get worse. It is often very hard to know whether TAK is active again. Thus, most patients need frequent doctor visits and angiograms.

POINTS TO REMEMBER

  • TAK is a rare inflammatory disease of large arteries.
  • These patients often need treatment with glucocorticoids and immunosuppressive drugs.
  • Symptoms of TAK reflect poor blood flow to tissues and organs.
    Detection of TAK most often requires testing by use of angiograms.
  • THE RHEUMATOLOGIST’S ROLE IN TREATING TAKAYASU’S ARTERITIS
    Rheumatologists are usually the experts with the most overall knowledge about TAK. Thus, they direct the care of these patients, particularly those patients needing immunosuppressive drugs. Other doctors that patients may need to see include a cardiologist (heart doctor) and a vascular surgeon. A team approach can offer the best care to patients with this disease.

Source :rheumatology .org

Sleep Paralysis : What really happens?

Published January 24, 2015 by by : teacherdahl

sleep paraalysis

What REALLY happens when you see a ghost: Bizarre brain activity behind ‘sleep paralysis’ is finally revealed

• Sleep paralysis occurs in rapid eye movement sleep, or dream sleep
• It causes the sufferer to feel as though they are awake but can’t move
• They may also see vivid hallucinations, such as ghosts or demons
• This is caused by mix-up in part of the brain dubbed the parietal lobes
• The lobes holds a map of the ‘self’ which is distorted due to paralysis

Lying in her bed in the middle of the night, Elizabeth Earle woke suddenly to see a menacing shadow in her room. She tried to scream, but couldn’t open her mouth.
What Ms Earle felt was ‘sleep paralysis’ – a terrifying phenomenon that 40 per cent of people experience at some point in their lives.
Now US researchers believe they know why this strange experience occurs, and it’s all to do with a mix-up in an area of the brain that holds a neural map of the ‘self’.

They believe sleep paralysis takes place when a person wakes up during a stage of sleep known as rapid eye movement (REM), in which they are usually dreaming.
REM lasts for around five to 15 minutes and is repeated roughly every 90 minutes throughout the night.
Although the person is awake, their muscles are nearly paralysed, which may be an evolutionary device to keep people from sleep walking while dreaming.

brain

But among those who experience sleep paralysis, a small group of people also feel as though there is a demonic figure in the room, pressing down on their chest.

Scientists at University of California, San Diego, say that one explanation is that there’s a disturbance in the brain region that holds a neural map of the ‘self.’
‘Perhaps, in part of the brain, there’s a genetically hardwired image of the body – a template,’ Baland Jalal, a neuroscientist at the University of California, San Diego told Live Science.
The researchers suggest that this hardwired image could be located in the parietal lobes – the top-middle part of the brain.
When a person suddenly wakes up during REM sleep, the parietal lobes monitor neurons in the brain that command muscles to move.
However, the limbs are temporarily paralysed, causing a disturbance which manifests itself as a hallucination.
The appearance of a ghost or demon could result when the brain tries to project the person’s own body image onto a hallucinated figure, said Dr Jalal.
If this idea is true, people who are missing a limb might hallucinate figures who are missing the same limb, he added said.
The paper, entitled Sleep paralysis and ‘the bedroom intruder': The role of the right superior parietal, phantom pain and body image projection is published in the journal Medical Hypotheses.

imagery night mare

Sleep paralysis occurs during rapid eye movement (REM) sleep or dream sleep. Pictured is an artist’s impression, c1790, named ‘The Nightmare’ by Anglo- Swiss artist Henry Fuseli

Best Quit-Smoking Tips Ever

Published January 6, 2015 by by : teacherdahl

frame 1

No. 1: Know Why You Want to Quit
So you want to quit smoking, but do you know why? “Because it’s bad for you” isn’t good enough. To get motivated, you need a powerful, personal reason to quit. Maybe you want to protect your family from secondhand smoke. Maybe the thought of lung cancer frightens you. Or maybe you’’d like to look and feel younger. Choose a reason that is strong enough to outweigh the urge to light up.


fraame2

No. 2: Don’t Go Cold Turkey
It may be tempting to toss your cigarettes and declare you’ve quit, plain and simple. But going cold turkey isn’t easy to do. About 95% of people who try to stop smoking without therapy or medication end up relapsing. The reason is that nicotine is addictive. The brain becomes used to having nicotine and craves it. In its absence, the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal occur.

fraame3

No. 3: Try Nicotine-Replacement Therapy
When you stop smoking, nicotine withdrawal may make you feel frustrated, depressed, restless, or irritable. The craving for “just one drag” may be overwhelming. Nicotine-replacement therapy can help reduce these feelings. Studies suggest nicotine gum, lozenges, and patches can help double your chances of quitting successfully when used with an intensive behavioral program. But using these products while smoking is generally not recommended.

frame 4

No. 4: Ask About Prescription Pills
To ease nicotine withdrawal without using products that contain nicotine, ask your doctor about prescription medications. There are pills that help reduce cravings by affecting chemicals in the brain. They may also make smoking less satisfying if you do pick up a cigarette. Other drugs can help reduce troubling withdrawal symptoms, such as depression or inability to concentrate.

frame5

No. 5: Don’t Go It Alone
Tell your friends, family, and co-workers that you’re trying to quit. Their encouragement could make the difference. You may also want to join a support group or talk to a counselor. Behavioral therapy is a type of counseling that helps you identify and stick to quit-smoking strategies. Combine behavioral therapy with nicotine replacement products and/or medication to boost your odds of success.

frame 6

No. 6: Manage Stress
One reason people smoke is that the nicotine helps them relax. Once you quit, you’ll need another way to cope with stress. Try getting regular massages, listening to relaxing music, or learning yoga or tai chi. If possible, avoid stressful situations during the first few weeks after you stop smoking.

No. 7: Avoid Alcohol, Other Triggers
Certain activities may boost your urge to smoke. Alcohol is one of the most common triggers, so try to drink less when you first quit. If coffee is a trigger, switch to tea for a few weeks. And if you usually smoke after meals, find something else to do instead, like brushing your teeth or chewing gum.

frame 7 clean house

No. 8: Clean House
Once you’ve smoked your last cigarette, toss all of your ashtrays and lighters. Wash any clothes that smell like smoke and clean your carpets, draperies, and upholstery. Use air fresheners to help rid your home of that familiar scent. You don’t want to see or smell anything that reminds you of smoking.

No. 9: Try and Try Again

It’s very common to have a relapse. Many smokers try several times before giving up cigarettes for good. Examine the emotions and circumstances that lead to your relapse. Use it as an opportunity to reaffirm your commitment to quitting. Once you’ve made the decision to try again, set a “quit date” within the next month.

frasme 8 get moving

No. 10: Get Moving
Physical activity can help reduce nicotine cravings and ease some withdrawal symptoms. When you want to reach for a cigarette, put on your inline skates or jogging shoes instead. Even mild exercise is helpful, such as walking the dog or pulling weeds in the garden. The extra calories you burn will also ward off weight gain as you quit smoking.

No. 11: Eat Fruits and Veggies
Don’t try to diet while giving up cigarettes — too much deprivation is bound to backfire. Instead, focus on eating more fruits, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products. A Duke University study suggests these foods make cigarettes taste terrible. This gives you a leg up in fighting your cravings while providing disease-fighting nutrients.

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No. 12: Choose Your Reward
In addition to the tremendous health benefits, one of the perks of giving up cigarettes is all the money you will save. Reward yourself by spending part of it on something fun.

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No. 13: Do It for Your Health

There’s more than the monetary reward to consider. Smoking cessation has immediate health benefits. It lowers your blood pressure and reduces your pulse after only 20 minutes. Within a day, the carbon monoxide level in your blood returns to normal. Within two weeks to three months, your risk of a heart attack decreases and your lungs begin to function better. Long-term benefits include a reduced risk for coronary heart disease, stroke, lung cancer, and other cancers.

source : Web MD

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