Vegan Diet

Published April 17, 2017 by teacher dahl

vegan 1

 

Overview

The aim: Depends, but may include weight loss, heart health and diabetes prevention or control.
The claim: Going vegan could help shed pounds and fend off chronic diseases.
The theory: You can cook up a perfectly healthy, meat- and dairy-free menu that supports weight loss and reduces the risk of heart disease, diabetes and cancer.

How does Vegan Diet work?
While vegetarians eliminate meat, fish and poultry, vegans take it a step further,excluding all animal products – even dairy and eggs. (Vegans are often animal rights activists who don’t believe in using animal products for any purpose.)

So say goodbye to refried beans with lard, margarine made with whey and anything with gelatin, which comes from animal bones and hooves, too. Fruits, vegetables, leafy greens, whole grains, nuts, seeds and legumes will be your staples.
Say Goodbye to Animal Products too.

animal products

Exactly how you shape your diet each day is up to you, but you’ll typically aim for six servings of grains, likely from bread and calcium-fortified cereal; five servings of legumes, nuts and other types of protein, such as peanut butter, chickpeas, tofu, potatoes and soy milk; and four daily servings of veggies, two servings of fruit and two servings of healthy fats, such as sesame oil, avocado and coconut, according to an American Dietetic Association guide. There’s also no need to give up dessert: Vegans can eat baked goods (cupcakes and cobbler, for example) made without butter, eggs or albumin.

How much does it cost?
It’s moderately pricey. Fruits, vegetables and soy products – which should be filling your cart if you’re doing it right – are generally more expensive than heavily processed foods like white bread, sugary cereals and sweets. But bypassing the butcher will help keep the tab reasonable.

Will you lose weight?
Likely. Research shows vegans tend to eat fewer calories, weigh less and have a lower body mass index (a measure of body fat) than their meat-eating counterparts. If you’re doing it right – i.e., eating lots of fruits, veggies and whole grains – you’ll likely feel full on fewer calories than you’re allowed each day. With that “calorie deficit” and a little physical activity, you’re bound to shed pounds. How quickly and whether you keep them off is up to you.

Here’s what several key studies have to say about veganism:

  • In one study, 99 participants with Type 2 diabetes followed either a vegan diet or a diet based on American Diabetes Association guidelines. After 22 weeks, the vegans lost an average of 13 pounds versus 9 in the ADA group, according to findings published in 2006 in Diabetes Care. If you’re overweight, losing just 5 to 10 percent of your current weight can help stave off some diseases.
    In another study, published in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition in 1999, researchers tracked 45 people: 20 meat-eaters and 25 vegans who’d been following the approach for an average of 12 years. Body mass index was appreciably lower among the vegans, nine of whom had a BMI of below 19, the researchers found; a BMI below 18.5 suggests a person is underweight.
    More than 60 overweight, postmenopausal women were split into two groups: Half followed a vegan diet, and the other half followed a National Cholesterol Education Program diet (low in fat and dietary cholesterol). After a year, vegan dieters lost more weight than did the NCEP group: 10.8 pounds compared with 3.9 pounds. The pattern held up after two years, when the vegans still weighed 6.8 pounds less than they did when the study began, compared with 1.8 pounds for the NCEP group, according to findings published in 2007 in Obesity.

    In a study published in 2014 in Nutrition, researchers followed a group of 50 overweight or obese adults for six months. They found that those on a vegan diet lost significantly more weight than those on other plans, including vegetarian, semivegetarian and omnivorous – by about 4.3 percent or an average of 16.5 pounds. The study authors suspect that’s because the vegan dieters were focusing on high-fiber foods, which help you feel full for longer, and their diets were low in fat and likely had fewer calories.

    Vegan
    How easy is it to follow?
    How difficult is the idea of a turkey-free Thanksgiving and morning cereal without the milk? Be mindful that healthy veganism requires planning, especially if you’re a newbie.

  • Convenience: When you want to cook, there’s a recipe somewhere that’ll suit your taste buds. Still, veganism takes some work and creativity. It’s up to you to plan meals around plant protein rather than animal protein.
  • Recipes: Limitless. Vegan magazines, books and websites abound, offering suggestions for every meal and cuisine.
  • Eating out: Doable, but options may be limited. Garden vegetable soup and steamed veggies make good appetizers. Entree salads are your best bet, but don’t forget to hold the bacon bits, croutons and cheese. For dessert, go with fresh fruit.
  • Alcohol: Only certain types of alcohol are vegan-friendly. Some wines, for example, are filtered through gelatin, egg whites and isinglass, made from fish bladders. Check which brands are OK on Barnivore, a guide to alcoholic beverages for vegans.

 

  • Fullness: Nutrition experts emphasize the importance of satiety, the satisfied feeling that you’ve had enough. If you’ve built a healthful vegan diet around fiber-packed veggies, fruits and whole grains, you shouldn’t feel hungry between meals.
  • Taste: You’re preparing the food – if it doesn’t taste good, you know who to blame. Try reinventing your favorites: Go for black-bean instead of steak burritos, or if chicken stir-fry is your thing, use tofu instead of poultry. And consider replacing turkey meatballs or the meat in spaghetti sauce with white beans. There are lots of dessert options, too, including raspberry lavender cupcakes, gingerbread pumpkin seed brittle, cherry-berry peanut butter cobbler and poppy seed scones. (Often, treats are made using nondairy milk, soy or coconut creamer, flaxseeds, chickpea flour, vegan cream cheese, and even vegan sprinkles.)

    variety

Health & Nutrition
Veganism can conform to a healthful eating plan, but it takes work, and the risk of insufficient amounts of key nutrients like calcium, vitamin D, vitamin B-12, zinc and iron is real. That worried experts a bit, but they still gave the diet a respectable score.

What is the role of exercise?
Veganism only has rules on what you can and cannot eat, but that doesn’t mean you shouldn’t exercise. No matter the diet, the more you move, the quicker you’ll see the pounds come off – and you’ll reduce your risk of developing diabetes, heart problems and other chronic diseases. Adults are generally encouraged to get at least 2 1/2 hours of moderate-intensity activity (like brisk walking) each week, along with a couple days of muscle-strengthening activities. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention offers tips to get you started.

pretty eater

Vegan Diet Recipes
Sample Menu
Here’s a day of meals for a vegan on a 1,500-calorie diet, adapted from a sample menu published in the Vegetarian Journal.
Breakfast
Orange-vanilla smoothie
1 slice whole wheat toast with 2 tablespoons almond butter
Lunch
2 whole wheat tortillas with 1 cup kidney beans, 1/4 cup avocado and salsa, chopped tomatoes and lettuce as desired
Steamed kale with 1 teaspoon flax oil
1 cup calcium-fortified soymilk
Dinner
Tofu and snow pea stir-fry
1/2 cup brown rice
1/2 cup watermelon cubes
Snack
1 cup calcium-fortified soymilk
3/4 cup unsweetened breakfast cereal

plate of veggies

Are there health risks?
If you create a sensible plan, you should be safe. But if you have a health condition, check with your doctor before going vegan.

Vegans often don’t get enough calcium, which can cause weak bones that break easily, according to a study published in Pediatric Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism in 2010. And in a 2009 report in the American Journal of Clinical Nutrition on the health effects of a vegan diet, researchers warned that vegans often don’t get enough vitamin D, vitamin B-12 and zinc. They’re also often low in the omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA, which are important for brain, eye and cardiovascular health. Supplements might be necessary.

A 2016 study by a Mayo Clinic review team found that some poorly planned vegan diets could lead to a deficiency of vitamin B-12, vitamin D, calcium, iron, protein and omega-3 fatty acids. A lack of some of these nutrients can have implications for bone strength, anemia, neurological disorders and other health problems. The clinic review team recommends that physicians observe their patients who eat vegan diets to makes sure they have adequate blood levels of calcium, ferritin, iron, vitamin B-12 and vitamin D.

Does it have cardiovascular benefits?
It could. An eating pattern heavy on fruits and veggies, but light on saturated fat and salt, is considered the best way to keep cholesterol and blood pressure in check and heart disease at bay.
• A 2016 study by researchers at the University of Florence in Italy found people who ate vegan and vegetarian diets showed a significant decrease in risk of heart disease and total cancer. The study found that people who ate vegan and vegetarian diets reduced their risk of ischemic heart disease by 25 percent, and people who consumed a vegan diet decreased their risk of total cancer by 15 percent.

• In a 12-year study that compared 6,000 vegetarians with 5,000 meat-eaters, researchers found that vegans had a 57-percent lower risk of ischemic heart disease than the meat-eaters.

• In the 2006 Diabetes Care study mentioned in the weight loss section, researchers concluded that vegan diets have a lipid- and cholesterol-lowering effect, likely because they eliminate dietary cholesterol (plant products are cholesterol-free) and are low in saturated fat.

• On your way to becoming vegan but can’t give up animal products cold turkey? Research finds those who simply eat a higher proportion of plant-based foods than animal-based foods have a 20-percent lower risk of dying from a cardiovascular disease, such as heart attack or stroke. But there’s evidence that taking it a step further and going all-in vegan may provide additional protection against high blood pressure and death related to cardiovascular disease.

Can it prevent or control diabetes?
It appears to be a good option for both.

Prevention: Being overweight is one of the biggest risk factors for Type 2 diabetes. If going meat-and-dairy-free helps you lose weight and keep it off, you’ll stand a better chance of staving off the disease. Some research has linked veganism with a lower diabetes risk.

Control: Vegan diets are healthful for people with diabetes, according to the American Diabetes Association. And because there are no rigid meal plans or prepackaged meals, you can ensure that what you’re eating doesn’t go against your doctor’s advice.

• In the 2006 Diabetes Care study mentioned above, which involved 99 people with Type 2 diabetes, both a vegan diet and an ADA-dietary guidelines diet improved control of blood sugar levels. However, the benefit was more profound in the vegan group. Researchers also found that vegan diets may have a beneficial effect on hemoglobin A1C levels, a measure of blood sugar over time. After 22 weeks, the vegans decreased their hemoglobin A1C levels by 0.96 percentage points, compared with 0.56 among the ADA dieters. And 43 percent of vegan dieters reduced the number of diabetes medications they were taking, while just 26 percent of the ADA group did.

Vegan Diet Do’s & Don’ts

Do: Have about six servings of grains a day. Whole-wheat bread, quinoa and calcium-fortified cereal are good sources.
Do: Have dessert.
But it needs to be made without butter, eggs or albumin. Tofu cheesecake is a popular choice
Don’t: Eat any animal products.
That even includes dairy, gelatin and eggs.

Reference: Mayo Clinic

5 Foods to Add to your Diet for Better Blood Pressure

Published April 14, 2017 by teacher dahl

fresh fruits

 

Sometimes, the hardest part of starting a healthier diet isn’t finding the willpower to change your habits, but thinking of new foods to eat. This is particularly true if your previous diet was largely made up of junk foods and snacks.
Do you need help starting on the healthy eating path? Try adding these five foods to your daily diet (in the servings recommended below) to lower your blood pressure and improve your overall health:
Fresh fruits, such as oranges, apples, bananas, watermelon, pineapples and more. Fresh fruits are packed with vitamins and minerals. If you eat canned fruit or drink fruit juice, make sure you choose a natural option that doesn’t contain any extra sugar. Consume 4-5 servings of fruit daily

 

milk
Low-fat (or no-fat) dairy products such as milk, yoghurt and cheese contain large amounts of protein and calcium. This makes them essential for muscle and bone health. Consume 2-3 servings of low-fat dairy foods daily.
Almonds, lentils, kidney beans and other legumes are wonderful sources of fibre and protein. Many nuts are also wonderful sources of healthy fats and phytochemicals – substances that prevent cardiovascular disease. Try to eat one serving of nuts or lentils daily.

lean meats
Lean meats such as chicken breast, tuna, salmon or beef steak are wonderful sources of protein and iron. If you like to consume red meat, choose cuts that contain as little fast a possible. Choose a small portion that can fit inside your palm; fill the rest of your plate with complex carbs and vegetables.

carbs
Complex carbohydrates such as brown rice, whole-wheat bread and pasta or cereal. Complex carbohydrates are a wonderful energy source that results in steady energy and alertness throughout the day. Consume about six servings of complex carbs per day; more if you’re exceptionally active.

This Is The Psychology Behind The Hidden Agenda Of Supermarkets

Published April 7, 2017 by teacher dahl

choosing pix

We all know that there are certain rules we should follow if we want to shop smart and healthily. Plan your meals. Write a list – and stick to it. Don’t go shopping on an empty stomach. But sometimes you can go in with the best intentions and come out with a family-size block of chocolate and a packet of chips. But you shouldn’t be too mad at yourself for that transgression; turns out supermarkets are specifically designed to trip you up.

A recent study by Live Lighter revealed that 60 per cent of Aussies buy unhealthy foods if they are on sale and in prime positions – such as end-of-aisle displays and at the checkout.

It’s all part of the psychology of supermarkets, which are specifically designed to keep you shopping longer, feeling happier and buying more. According to environmental psychologist Paco Underhill, “Upward of 50 per cent of what we buy in a supermarket we had no intention of buying as we walked in the door.” But how do we get duped time and time again? Here are four sneaky ways the experience of shopping gets you to overbuy.

Smell
Think it’s simply a matter of convenience that those roast chickens are made onsite? Think again – the mouth-watering smell that hits you right as you walk into the store is there to remind you just how hungry you are before you start your shop.

super positioning

Positioning

If you’re just popping in for a bottle of milk, the layout will have you walking right to the very back of the store. The most common items most people purchase – milk, bread and eggs – are often placed at opposite ends of the shop. By making you walk farther, you’re more likely to see something else you ‘need’ on the way. Not to mention the fact that the path to your staples involves walking down aisles full of tempting junk food first.

Music
The supermarket playlist is at its most grating in November, when the Christmas music starts up way too early to get you in that festive (buying) spirit. But those catchy tunes have a purpose the rest of the year, too: a landmark 1982 study of supermarket shoppers found people spent 34 per cent more time shopping when background music was playing.

exit

Entrances and exits
Have you ever noticed that the entrances of most supermarkets are on the right, with the exits on the left? The aim of this is to get you moving counter-clockwise, right to left along the aisles, priming you to pick up things from the right-hand shelves. Exactly where supermarkets place the more expensive items. And it works. According to a discussion on ABC Radio Canberra, counter-clockwise shoppers spend an average of two dollars more per trip than punters moving in a clockwise direction.

So, how can you outsmart the supermarket giants and stop making those impulse purchases? LiveLighter Victoria Campaign Manager Alison McAleese suggests making fewer trips to the supermarket and sticking to the outer aisles to lessen the temptation.

“Steer clear of cheap promotions on junk food and drinks by sticking to the outer aisles of the supermarket where there is a plenty of fresh healthy food like fruit and vegetables,” she says. “Also consider shopping at local markets, greengrocers or butchers where you are less likely to find sales and promotions on processed, high kilojoule food and drinks.” To the farmers’ markets we go!

 

Reference

Look Younger : Secrets that Work

Published March 17, 2017 by teacher dahl

Primer

Start With Primer
If you’re old enough for laugh lines, a skin care makeover can give you a fresher, younger look. Our skin dries and thins with age, so products used five years ago may look quite matronly today. A better routine calls for skin primer, according to Robin Rylant, a celebrity makeup artist who’s worked with Celine Dion. A high-quality primer fills in small wrinkles, making them less visible.

Forgo Thick Foundation
If you still slather foundation directly over aging skin, you’re likely adding years to your look. That thick top coat tends to break into deep cracks, which look far worse than the fine lines you’re trying to hide. Instead, apply moisturizer, primer, then a light liquid foundation for additional skin-plumping moisture. Ryland suggests tapping it in gently with a sponge, rather than rubbing it in.

clown eyes
Avoid Clown Eyes
Applying flattering eye makeup requires precision. Unfortunately, eyesight tends to decline with age. “If you don’t see as well, you may not get the makeup on correctly,” Ryant says. The results can include clownish amounts of eye shadow or crooked eyeliner. The solution: “Get yourself a good magnifying mirror.”

Enhance the Shape of the Eye
As we age, the eyelids tend to droop, so the goal is to draw attention away from the lid and toward the actual eye. Eyeliner is the key. Apply it in a thin streak along the line where the lashes begin, top and bottom. This will enhance the shape of your eye and create the illusion of thicker lashes. Use soft shades and a light touch when applying eye shadow.

enhance
Put Eyebrows Back On
“Eyebrows are extremely important because they frame the face,” Ryant says. But the brows tend to grow thinner and grayer with age. To “put eyebrows back on,” Ryant recommends using eyebrow pencil that complements your hair color. Placing powder over the pencil will help it stay put. Some people choose to have eyebrows permanently tattooed, but the FDA and Consumer Reports has raised safety concerns about this practice.

bleeding lips

No Bleeding Lipstick

Don’t Let the Lips ‘Bleed’
Few things draw attention to wrinkles like bleeding lip color. This happens because lipstick is a cream, and it tends to slip into any low spaces — including the lines around your lips. To keep color from traveling, use moisturizer, then coat the lips with foundation before applying lipstick.

whiten teeth
Whiten Stained Teeth
Whitening toothpastes can help remove surface stains so your teeth look about one shade lighter. To go deeper, try peroxide-based whitening gels or strips. These products bleach the enamel of your teeth to change your natural tooth color. For the most dramatic results, an in-office treatment with your dentist can make the teeth visibly whiter in less than an hour. Several treatments may be needed to get the desired shade.

tired eyes

Rejuvenate Tired Eyes
If your eyes look tired, the most obvious solution may be to get more rest. Sleep triggers the release of hormones that help the skin remain thicker and more elastic. To reduce eye puffiness, cut back on salt and stay well hydrated. You can also try soothing swollen eyes with cool cucumber slices or moist tea bags.

dark circles

Reduce Dark Circles
Getting enough sleep can also minimize dark circles under the eyes. But in some people, the discoloration comes from too much pigmentation in the skin. In that case, creams containing lightening agents such as retinol, hydroquinone, green tea, or vitamin C may help. To camouflage dark circles, use a concealer one shade lighter than your skin and yellowish in tone. Wear SPF 30 sunscreen daily.

boosts thin hair
Boost Thinning Hair
You can give thinning hair the illusion of more body with some simple styling tricks. Use a large round brush to lift the hair and add volume. To set the style, use the cool button on your hairdryer. Styling with hot rollers is another good option. If you’re looking for a low-maintenance way to add body, Ryant suggests a perm.

pamper hands

Pamper Your Hands
The skin on the hands has very little fatty tissue underneath and can easily become crinkled when dry. Applying moisturizer throughout the day can draw water into the skin to help hands look plumper and more youthful. Look for a moisturizer that contains glycerin, hyaluronic acid, shea butter, or safflower seed oil. You can also use lightening creams to fade age spots on the hands.

dont smoke

Don’t Smoke
One of the surest ways to protect against skin damage is to avoid cigarettes. Studies of twins suggest smokers have skin that is more wrinkled and up to 40% thinner than nonsmokers. Researchers believe tobacco smoke releases an enzyme that breaks down collagen and elastin, compounds that are vital to the skin’s structure and elasticity.

Protein & Other Nutrients In An Egg

Published March 12, 2017 by teacher dahl

egg frame

YOLKS Vs WHITES

A combination of amino acids, some of which are called essential because the human body needs them from the diet because it can’t synthesize them. Adequate dietary protein intake must include all the essential amino acids your body needs daily. The egg boasts them all: histidine, isoleucine, leucine, lysine, methionine, phenylalanine, threonine, tryptophan and valine. These amino acids are present in a pattern that matches very closely the pattern the human body needs, so the egg is often the measuring stick by which other protein foods are measured. In addition to the nine essential amino acids, there are nine other amino acids in an egg.
Many different ways to measure protein quality have been developed. According to the Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS), whole egg, whey protein, casein and soy-protein concentrate all score 1 on a scale of 0 to 1. Whole egg exceeds all other protein foods tested with a score of 1.21 (above human needs) in the Amino Acid Score (AAS) rating system. At 3.8, the Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER) of eggs also outscores other proteins.

Altogether each Large egg provides a total of 6.29 grams of high-quality, complete protein. For this reason, eggs are classified with meat in the Protein Foods Group. One egg of any size equals one ounce of lean meat, poultry, fish or seafood. In addition to about 12.6% of the Daily Reference Value (DRV) for protein, a large egg provides varying amounts of many other nutrients, too.

eggs
Yolk
The yolk, or yellow portion, of an egg makes up about 34% of the liquid weight of the egg. It contains all of the fat in the egg and a little less than half of the protein. The yolk of a large egg contains about 55 calories.
With the exception of niacin and riboflavin, the yolk contains a higher proportion of the egg’s vitamins than the white, including vitamins B6 and B12, folic acid, pantothenic acid and thiamin. All of the egg’s vitamins A, D, E and K are in the yolk. Egg yolks are one of the few foods naturally containing vitamin D. The yolk also contains more calcium, copper, iron, manganese, phosphorus, selenium and zinc than the white.
Double-yolked eggs are often produced by young hens whose egg production cycles are not yet completely synchronized. They’re often produced too, by hens which are old enough to produce extra large-sized eggs. Genetics is a factor, also. Occasionally a hen will produce double-yolked eggs throughout her egg-laying career. It’s rare, but not unusual, for a young hen to produce an egg with no yolk at all.It’s the yolk which is responsible for the egg’s emulsifying properties.
Yolk Color
Yolk color depends on the hen’s diet. If a hen eats plenty of yellow-orange plant pigments called xanthophylls, the xanthophylls will be deposited in the egg yolk. Hens fed mashes containing yellow corn or alfalfa meal lay eggs with medium yellow yolks, while those eating wheat or barley yield lighter-colored yolks. A colorless diet, such as white cornmeal, produces almost colorless yolks. Natural yellow-orange substances, such as marigold petals, may be added to light-colored feeds to enhance yolk color. Artificial color additives are not permitted. Most buyers in this country prefer gold or lemon-colored yolks. Yolk pigments are relatively stable and are not lost or changed in cooking.
Albumen – Also Known As Egg White.
Depending on the size of the egg, albumen accounts for most of an egg’s liquid weight, about 66%. The white contains more than half the egg’s total protein, a majority of the egg’s niacin, riboflavin, magnesium, potassium and sodium, and none of the fat. The white of a large egg contains about 17 calories.
Albumen color is opalescent and doesn’t appear white until an egg is beaten or cooked. The cloudy appearance comes from carbon dioxide. As eggs age, carbon dioxide escapes, so the albumen of older eggs is more transparent than that of fresher eggs.
The albumen consists of four alternating layers of thick and thin consistencies. From the yolk outward, they are designated as the inner thick or chalaziferous white, the inner thin white, the outer thick white and the outer thin white. As an egg ages, the egg white tends to thin out because its protein changes in character. That’s why fresh eggs sit up tall and firm in the pan while older ones tend to spread out.
When you beat egg white vigorously, it foams and increases in volume six to eight times. Egg foams are essential for making meringues, puffy omelets, soufflés, angel food and sponge cakes.

SOURCE

 

 

 

 

Too Much TV Tied to Poor Math Scores

Published March 7, 2017 by teacher dahl

watching TV

Kindergartners, who spend more than a couple of hours per day watching television tend to score lower in tests of math and executive function, according to a new study by researchers at New York University’s (NYU) Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development and Université Sainte-Anne in Nova Scotia.

Studies have shown that TV watching is linked to declines in early academic skills, but little is known about how socioeconomic status influences television viewing and child development. In the new study, the researchers looked at whether the negative relationship between watching television and school readiness varied by family income.

“Given that studies have reported that children often watch more than the recommended amount, and the current prevalence of technology such as smartphones and tablets, engaging in screen time may be more frequent now than ever before,” said lead author Andrew Ribner, a doctoral candidate in the Department of Applied Psychology at NYU Steinhardt.

Kid on TV

The researchers analyzed data from 807 kindergartners of diverse backgrounds. Their parents reported family income, as well as the number of hours of television their children watch on a daily basis. Video game, tablet, and smartphone use were not included in the measurement.

Children were assessed using measures of math, knowledge of letters and words, and executive function — key cognitive and social-emotional competencies, including working memory, cognitive flexibility, and inhibitory control, that are viewed as fundamental for school readiness.

The findings show that the number of hours of television young children watch is related to decreases in their school readiness, particularly their math skills and executive function. This association was strongest when children watched more than two hours of television.

As family incomes decreased, the link between television watching and drops in school readiness grew, meaning children from low-income families are more negatively affected by excess television. Those at or near the poverty line (an annual income of around $21,200 for a family of four) saw the largest drop in school readiness when children watched more than two hours of television.

A more modest drop was observed among middle-income families (measured as $74,200 per year for a family of four), while there was no link between school readiness and television viewing in high-income homes (measured as around $127,000 per year for a family of four).

Interestingly, while TV watching was negatively associated with math skills and executive function, a similar link was not found with letter and word knowledge. The researchers hypothesize that TV programming, especially educational programs for children, may help improve literacy among young children in ways that are not found in math.

While the study did not evaluate the type of content the children watched, nor the context of their television viewing, the researchers note that both may play a role in the findings, particularly in explaining why wealthier families seem to be protected from declines in school readiness linked to too much television.
Furthermore, affluent parents with more time and resources may be more likely to watch television with their children, offering explanation and discussion that can promote understanding.

“Our results suggest that the circumstances that surround child screen time can influence its detrimental effects on learning outcomes,” said Dr. Caroline Fitzpatrick of Université Sainte-Anne, who is also an affiliate researcher at Concordia University and a coauthor on the study.

The findings, published in the Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, support current guidelines limiting screen time for young children. In 2001, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommended that children over the age of two watch no more than two hours of television per day.

SOURCE

Popular Baby Care Myths and Reality

Published February 11, 2017 by teacher dahl

nappy-change

Baby Powder Use

Myth: Sprinkle baby powder on your newborn after you change him.
Reality: There’s no need to use powder on your baby’s skin.
Dr. Adesman Explains: “Diaper technology has come a long way, and diapers nowadays are very good at keeping babies dry. Baby powder, especially talc, has a great risk of inhalation and can cause respiratory problems.”

potty-4

Changing Baby’s Diaper

Myth: Never leave an infant in a wet or soiled diaper for more than 20 minutes.
Reality: It’s best to change diapers as soon as they’re wet or soiled, but there is no 20-minute rule.
Dr. Adesman Explains: “Kids are more likely to soil their diapers when they’re awake than when they’re asleep, but if your baby does wet his diaper while sleeping, you don’t need to wake him up to change his diaper. In general, if your baby is awake, for comfort reasons, rash prevention, and to minimize smell, it is best to change his diaper as soon as possible.”

potty-3

Baby’s Bowel Movements

Myth: A baby or child who doesn’t have a bowel movement (BM) every day is likely to be constipated.
Reality: A baby or child can have a BM after each meal or go for days without one and still be “normal.”
Dr. Adesman Explains: “When it comes to their baby’s bowel movements, parents might get used to a certain frequency and get concerned when that pattern changes. Mom and Dad just need to remember that regular doesn’t have to be frequent. As long as there isn’t any difficulty passing them, there generally isn’t great cause to worry.”

potty-2

Potty-Training Timing

Myth: Your child must begin toilet-training no later than 18-24 months of age.
Reality: There is no definite time for toilet-training.
Dr. Adesman Explains: “Some parents love to claim bragging rights when their child becomes toilet-trained earlier. And while there are certainly some reasons why parents might want to accelerate the process, such as economical reasons or day care requirements, toilet-training is a highly variable process. Some kids are just ready earlier than others.”

Potty-Training Pants

Myth: Don’t use disposable training pants — they’ll prolong toilet-training.
Reality: Using disposable training pants is OK.
Dr. Adesman Explains: “Of all the proclamations about toilet-training, I hear this one the most. A good number of children feel good about using training pants and, likewise, parents can feel comfortable with their children using them. They are a positive stepping stone and a nice convenience.”

black-baby

Gender Differences

Myth: Boys are harder to toilet-train than girls.
Reality: It’s no more difficult to train boys, though they might start slightly later.
Dr. Adesman Explains: “There are a few minor gender differences to take into consideration, such as bladder capacity and the fact that Mom is usually the primary caregiver to take the lead on toilet-training. But we are talking about small differences in time — weeks or months, not years. When it comes to toilet-training, little girls and boys are much more similar than different.”

About Dr. Andrew Adesman
Dr. Andrew Adesman is Chief of the Division of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics at Schneider Children’s Hospital in New York and an associate professor in the Pediatrics Department at Albert Einstein College of Medicine. His book Baby Facts reveals more than 200 startling myths and facts about babies’ and young children’s health, growth, care, and more.

Source

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