Toddlers

All posts tagged Toddlers

Too Much TV Tied to Poor Math Scores

Published March 7, 2017 by teacher dahl

watching TV

Kindergartners, who spend more than a couple of hours per day watching television tend to score lower in tests of math and executive function, according to a new study by researchers at New York University’s (NYU) Steinhardt School of Culture, Education, and Human Development and Université Sainte-Anne in Nova Scotia.

Studies have shown that TV watching is linked to declines in early academic skills, but little is known about how socioeconomic status influences television viewing and child development. In the new study, the researchers looked at whether the negative relationship between watching television and school readiness varied by family income.

“Given that studies have reported that children often watch more than the recommended amount, and the current prevalence of technology such as smartphones and tablets, engaging in screen time may be more frequent now than ever before,” said lead author Andrew Ribner, a doctoral candidate in the Department of Applied Psychology at NYU Steinhardt.

Kid on TV

The researchers analyzed data from 807 kindergartners of diverse backgrounds. Their parents reported family income, as well as the number of hours of television their children watch on a daily basis. Video game, tablet, and smartphone use were not included in the measurement.

Children were assessed using measures of math, knowledge of letters and words, and executive function — key cognitive and social-emotional competencies, including working memory, cognitive flexibility, and inhibitory control, that are viewed as fundamental for school readiness.

The findings show that the number of hours of television young children watch is related to decreases in their school readiness, particularly their math skills and executive function. This association was strongest when children watched more than two hours of television.

As family incomes decreased, the link between television watching and drops in school readiness grew, meaning children from low-income families are more negatively affected by excess television. Those at or near the poverty line (an annual income of around $21,200 for a family of four) saw the largest drop in school readiness when children watched more than two hours of television.

A more modest drop was observed among middle-income families (measured as $74,200 per year for a family of four), while there was no link between school readiness and television viewing in high-income homes (measured as around $127,000 per year for a family of four).

Interestingly, while TV watching was negatively associated with math skills and executive function, a similar link was not found with letter and word knowledge. The researchers hypothesize that TV programming, especially educational programs for children, may help improve literacy among young children in ways that are not found in math.

While the study did not evaluate the type of content the children watched, nor the context of their television viewing, the researchers note that both may play a role in the findings, particularly in explaining why wealthier families seem to be protected from declines in school readiness linked to too much television.
Furthermore, affluent parents with more time and resources may be more likely to watch television with their children, offering explanation and discussion that can promote understanding.

“Our results suggest that the circumstances that surround child screen time can influence its detrimental effects on learning outcomes,” said Dr. Caroline Fitzpatrick of Université Sainte-Anne, who is also an affiliate researcher at Concordia University and a coauthor on the study.

The findings, published in the Journal of Developmental & Behavioral Pediatrics, support current guidelines limiting screen time for young children. In 2001, the American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) recommended that children over the age of two watch no more than two hours of television per day.

SOURCE

Expose Children to Vegetables Early and Often

Published May 16, 2016 by teacher dahl

baby n veggies

Exposing infants to a new vegetable early in life encourages them to eat more of it compared to offering novel vegetables to older children, new research from the University of Leeds suggests.

expose babies to vegetables early and often to adopt healthy eating habitsThe researchers, led by Professor Marion Hetherington in the Institute of Psychological Sciences, also found that even fussy eaters are able to eat a bit more of a new vegetable each time they are offered it.

The research, involving babies and children from the UK, France and Denmark, also dispelled the popular myth that vegetable tastes need to be masked or given by stealth in order for children to eat them.

mom kid

Professor Hetherington said: “For parents who wish to encourage healthy eating in their children, our research offers some valuable guidance.

“If you want to encourage your children to eat vegetables, make sure you start early and often. Even if your child is fussy or does not like veggies, our study shows that 5-10 exposures will do the trick.”

In the study, which was funded by the EU, the research team gave artichoke puree to 332 children from three countries aged from weaning age to 38 months. During the experiment each child was given between five and 10 servings of at least 100g of the artichoke puree in one of three versions: basic; sweetened, with added sugar; or added energy, where vegetable oil was mixed into the puree.

There was also little difference in the amounts eaten over time between those who were fed basic puree and those who ate the sweetened puree, which suggests that making vegetables sweeter does not make a significant difference to the amount children eat.

Younger children consumed more artichoke than older children. This is because after 24 months children become reluctant to try new things and start to reject foods – even those they previously liked. Among the children, four distinct groups emerged. Most children (40 percent) were “learners” who increased intake over time. Of the group, 21 percent consumed more than 75 percent of what was offered each time and they were called “plate-clearers”.

plate

Those who ate less than 10g even by the fifth helping were classified as “non-eaters”, amounting to 16 percent of the cohort, and the remainder were classified as “others” (23 percent) since their pattern of intake varied over time. Non-eaters, who tended to be older pre-school children, were the most fussy, the research found.

Globe artichoke was chosen as the sample vegetable because, as part of the research, parents were surveyed and artichoke was one of the least-offered vegetables. NHS guidelines are to start weaning children onto solid foods at six months.

The research has been published in the journal PLOS ONE.

Source: University of Leeds

How to make a toddler to behave

Published September 16, 2014 by teacher dahl

deal

Each child is different, but sometimes, there are tricks that work better than others. Here are some discipline strategies other Pinay moms and I used that might work for you too.

1. Do not give in
My daughter could scream like a pig being slaughtered, but I would steadily chant in my head, “Be strong. Be strong. Be strong.” The moment she cried to get something, we took it away. We didn’t want her to equate the tantrum with getting her way.
Treena Ongking realized the same thing when her toddler Carlo would not pack away. She stopped doing it for him and told him he couldn’t take out more toys until his toys were stored. “It didn’t work at first,” she says. “I’d have to run and block Carlo from opening the cabinet. I encountered lots of tears. And there was a time when my husband came home from work to find wooden blocks and alphabet magnets all over. I told him that he shouldn’t pick up any of the toys because Carlo, by this time, had figured out that if he stalled long enough, his papa would end up tidying the mess.”

2. Distract your toddler
When Michelle Aujero-Trenfield’s daughter would misbehave, she tried to reason with her, but learned that it didn’t work. “So the strategy I employed was distraction,” she says. “She used to really enjoy pulling our beagle’s tail. So whenever she would do it, I would say ‘no’ in a stern voice and distract her with another activity like running around or playing ball. When she did have meltdowns, either her dad or I would just give her a cuddle and try and distract her.”

3. Save the talk for when they are calm
“In the heat of the moment, reasoning will not work,” says Tricel de Guzman. “Instead, I leave my daughter in her room for a moment, telling her that I will wait until she’s calm and ready. When she has calmed down, that’s the time I talk to her.”

4. Get away from the crowd
When your toddler is acting up, an audience will be your downfall. I learned early on that I needed to get away from the scene of the crime and take my toddler some place quiet where she could finish her tantrum in peace—away from judging eyes.

5. Model proper behavior
“I find that the best way to correct behavior is to model it to your child,” says Michelle. “My daughter says please and thank you a lot, but it always frustrated me that she never said (or wanted to say!) sorry. Then we realized that it was because we hardly said it. So my husband and I started saying sorry and before long, she started doing it as well.”

6. Be consistent
Tricel says no matter how tempting it is to “let this one slide,” the behavior you are trying to instill will not become a habit if your child thinks you aren’t serious about your rules. So grit your teeth and stay consistent!

7. Reward good behavior and give consequences for undesirable ones
“As we all know, toddlers take forever to eat,” says Mitzi Benares-Nguyen. “I eventually came up with this rule: No snacks for the rest of the day if you don’t finish your lunch, and for dinner, no prize. This prize is usually a small cookie or anything sweet (chocolates are not allowed at night). So far, so good. When they complain about not wanting to finish their food, I remind them of my rules, then they stuff their mouths with a big subo.”

8. Turn it into a game!
Packing away doesn’t have to be a chore. You can sing a pack away song or you can put a basketball hoop above a hamper or toy container and have them shoot their toys and clothes in. You just need a little more creativity, but in the end, you’ll be less stressed and will face less tears.

So, parents, what discipline strategies work for you?

from : Yahoo she

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