Bedwetting blues

Published July 23, 2014 by by : teacherdahl

bedwetting blues


Bedwetting is something many families face. The good news? Most of the time, it is not a sign of many major medical or emotional issues. The bad news? It can still be a traumatizing experience for your child, especially if not dealt with properly.

The thing with bedwetting is that it can be a stressful problem for your child. Your child will feel embarrassed and guilty about wetting the bed, and is anxious about spending the night anywhere else for fear that it may happen. And as a parent, you can’t help but feel helpless.

How common is it?

What you and your child need to know about bedwetting is that it’s absolutely normal! Especially for children under the age of six. Also known as Enuresis, bedwetting is a very common problem for children, especially for boys. For some, it happens more often than usual but it is not an uncommon thing for a child to have an accident or two.

Why is your child having this problem? There are a few bedwetting causes:

Did you have a bedwetting problem when you were a child? Chances are your child will have the same problem as it is heredity.

Your child’s bladder may be smaller in size (children’s bladders only reach full size past 12) and not developed enough to hold urine produced during the night.

Your child could be a deep sleeper who doesn’t respond as he should to the internal signal to urinate.

For more serious cases, your child can have some underlying medical causes such as urinary tract infections, chronic constipation, diabetes and a structural problem to the nervous system. However, these cases are often very rare.

Emotional factors such as anxiety, being bullied, starting a new school, stress and so forth.

Addressing bedwetting blues

  • First, don’t let the issue slide. While bedwetting usually goes away on its own, you will still need to address it to provide your child support and positive reinforcement during this process. The most important thing to do? Reassure your child that it is a normal part of growing up and that it will not last forever. This will comfort your child and help him eventually grow out of it.

Here are more suggestions on how you can address the bedwetting blues.

  1. Be sensitive
    It is important to tell everyone else in the household to be sensitive about the issue. Bedwetting can have a serious emotional effect on your child so making a big deal out of it will only cause him to feel ashamed. If you have other children, tell them not to make fun of their sibling as it will only be more difficult for him to overcome the problem.

Also, you have to watch your own sensitivity levels. It can be frustrating to change the sheets every time, especially in the morning when you are rushing for work. Without realising, you may even lash out at your child, which will linger in his mind and make him feel ashamed. So remember to calm down and work at being less annoyed at the situation. Strip the sheets and leave the cleaning for later if you must. Keep rags and cleaning products nearby for fast cleaning.

      2. Get your child involved

Let your child help, whether it is to tidy up or to help strip the sheets off. By doing so, your child will feel better about himself knowing that he has helped out. This will also help him feel less inept or babyish about himself.

wet beds


Work out an action plan with your child on how best to deal with bedwetting, whether it is telling you immediately or asking for help if he needs to go to the toilet. Getting your child involved this way makes him feel more in control of his problem and better able to cope with it. Also, offer your child praise when he has a dry night.

    3. Avoid the accident
Oftentimes, bedwetting can be avoided. Limit how much your child drinks in the evening, especially when it gets closer to bedtime. It is recommended that your child has 40 per cent of his liquids between 7 am to noon, another 40 per cent between noon to 5 pm, and the remaining 20 per cent after 5 pm.

     4. Encourage regular toilet use throughout the day. Teach your child to urinate once every two hours so that he doesn’t get used to holding it in. Also, encourage double voiding – urinating at the beginning of the bedtime routine and then again just before falling asleep.

toilet training


Make sure the toilet is accessible for your child so he can use it during the night if needed. Use small night lights so he can find his way through the room. Also, place the bed as close as you can to the toilet. Every few seconds count when it comes to bedwetting.

3. Pay close attention to your child
Bedwetting can be an indication of bigger issues, especially emotional ones. If you notice your child wetting the bed more regular than not, then make sure you pay attention to his behaviour. While it is rare that a child wets the bed because of a bigger issue, things like withdrawing himself, sudden changes in appetite, fearfulness, mood swings, loss of bladder control even during the day and bruising on the body can be signs that there is a lot more going on with your child’s life that needs to be addressed immediately.


You also need to see the doctor when your child starts complaining of a burning sensation when urinating, when he has swollen feet or ankles, when he is urinating more than usual, when he starts wetting the bed after being consistently dry for at least six months, and when he is still wetting the bed at age seven.

Other than that, you and your child need to remember that bedwetting is a common problem and nearly all children outgrow it. With a little patience and positive thinking, it can be resolved.

source : yahoo she


Household tip : Getting Rid of Fruit Flies in a Compost Bin

Published July 20, 2014 by by : teacherdahl

compost bin


Fruit flies are such a pain to get rid of,  once they’re in your house. But what do you do if your vermi composting  bin has fruit flies? Sure we could always keep the  bin outside, but when the temperatures are in the upper 90′s outside the poor worms will cook in our worm bin. We thought about putting the worm bin in the shop or barn, but those two places also get pretty warm when the temperatures soar. Our last resort was putting them in the house. But before they moved into the house, we needed to get rid of those pesky fruit flies!

Three Key Elements to Get Rid of Fruit Flies in a Compost Bin
I eventually discovered three key elements to keep fruit flies out of the worm composting bin while still feeding them fruit and vegetable scraps. I’ve been doing these two things for a couple weeks now and we no longer have issues with fruit flies! What does that mean? Our worms now live in the house, in a nice shady corner of the laundry room.

#1: Freeze all worm “food” before adding it to the bin.



Fruit flies lay their eggs on the skin of produce. When frozen, the eggs are killed. We now keep a gallon size plastic bag in the freezer and add produce scraps to it as we have them. Once the bag is full, I keep it in the freezer for another 24 hours just to make sure the last batch of scraps added to it have a chance to fully freeze.

After freezing the produce scraps for at least 24 hours, remove them from the freezer. Let them thaw and return to room temperature. Then they are ready to be fed to your worms. After the produce is frozen and then thawed, it all starts to turn in to a slimy mess which the worms love even more!

#2: Bury the food in the worm bin.


Instead of laying the produce scraps on top of the other materials in the bin, bury them. I keep a small hand rake by the worm bin so when I feed them I can use it to carefully rake the other materials back and bury the new food. The idea behind burying the food is that it keeps it out of reach to any flying insects, like fruit flies, that may happen to sneak into your bin. If they can’t reach it, they won’t lay eggs in it.


news scraps

#3: Put damp newspaper scraps on the top layer of the compost bin.

We tore newspaper into thin 1/2″-1″ wide strips and laid it on top of the other layers of material in our worm bin. If you tear with the grain of the paper, you will be amazed at how easily it tears in nice uniform strips! Place enough newspaper strips on top so you can’t see the next layer underneath. Again the idea with this is to keep the soil layer or any food scraps poking up through inaccessible to the fruit flies to lay eggs.

Spritz water on the newspaper strips until they are damp. This is another great way to gauge the moisture level in the worm bin. For a newbie vermicomposter, trying to figure out if the bin is wet enough or too wet can be tricky. The newspaper is an easy gauge. When you check the worm bin and the newspaper is dried out, sprtiz it with water until it is damp again. If the newspaper is soaking wet, it is probably a little too wet in the bin and the lid needs to stay off for a bit. We’ve also noticed that the worms loved to eat the newspaper layer so eventually you will need to add more as they consume it.

Metabolism What is it and How Does it Work?

Published July 18, 2014 by by : teacherdahl



Metabolism is ultimately a collection of chemical reactions that takes place in the body’s cells converting the fuel in the food we eat into the energy needed to power everything we do, from moving to thinking to growing. In fact, thousands of metabolic reactions happen at the same time – all regulated by the body – to keep our cells healthy and working.

There are two processes, or rather, two interactive channels by which metabolism runs.

  • Catabolism refers to the breakdown of food components (such as carbohydrates, proteins and fats) into their simpler forms, which can then be used to create energy. Think of it as your “destructive metabolism” which produces the energy required for all activity in the cells. In this process, cells break down carbohydrates and fats to release energy and fuel all anabolic reactions, such as heating the body, giving the muscles power to contract and the body to move. As complex chemical units are broken down into more simple substances, the waste products released in the process of catabolism are removed from the body through the skin, kidneys, lungs, and intestines.
  • Anabolism is your “constructive metabolism” that gives which is all about building and storing. All anabolic processes support the growth of new cells, the maintenance of body tissues, and the storage of energy for use in the future.

These are governed by your Hormonal and Nervous systems. Interestingly, they work together like a team complimenting every single cellular action in your body.

Trying to determine your caloric need for the day? Your body’s metabolic rate (or total energy expenditure) is the one that says it all – you are what you eat, how you move, how much you rest and how well all cells and tissues are able to recuperate. Energy expenditure is continuous, but the rate varies throughout the day. The lowest rate of energy expenditure is usually in the early morning.

The complexity of metabolism can be divided into three components:

  • Basal metabolic rate (BMR) - is the amount of kilojoules burned at rest and contributes 50-80% of your energy used. The BMR refers to the amount of energy your body needs to maintain itself. This accounts for 50-80% of your total energy use. Total lean mass, especially muscle mass, is largely responsible for the BMR. So, anything that reduces lean mass will reduce BMR. That’s why it’s important to preserve muscle mass when you try to lose weight, since the BMR accounts for so much of the energy we use. An average male may have a BMR of around 7,100kJ per day, while an average female may have a BMR of around 5,900kJ per day.
  • Energy used during physical activity – this is the amount of kilojoules burned during movement and physical activity. The energy expenditure of the muscles makes up only 20% or so of the total energy expenditure at rest but, during strenuous exercise, the rate of energy expenditure of the muscles may go up 50-fold or more. Since energy used during exercise is the only form of energy expenditure that you have any control over, take advantage of this phenomenon and start moving more!
  • Thermic effect of food - this is the energy you use to eat, digest and metabolize food. Regardless of what you thought before, eating actually raises your metabolism. No wonder diet-obsessed meal-skippers burn less calories AND have no energy to move. After each meal, the metabolic rise occurs soon after you start eating and peaks two to three hours later. It can range between 2-3% and up to 25-30%, depending on the size of the meal and the types of foods eaten. Fats raise the BMR by 4%, carbohydrates by 6% and proteins by up to 30%! Hot spicy foods can also have a significant thermic effect.



Relaxation Techniques That Zap Stress Fast

Published July 12, 2014 by by : teacherdahl

warm bath

1. Meditate

  •  There are many different ways to experience the benefits of meditation. One soothing method is to meditate in the bath. A bath meditation combines the standard benefits of meditation (you can read about the benefits of meditation — they’re pretty amazing) with the benefits of a soothing, hot bath, which can relax tired muscles, provide a relaxing atmosphere, and allow a temporary feeling of escape from stressors. 
  • Another method :  Sit up straight with both feet on the floor. Close your eyes. Focus your attention on reciting — out loud or silently — a positive mantra such as “I feel at peace” or “I love myself.” Place one hand on your belly to sync the mantra with your breaths. Let any distracting thoughts float by like clouds.

meditate frame one


2. Breathe Deeply

Take a 5-minute break and focus on your breathing. Sit up straight, eyes closed, with a hand on your belly. Slowly inhale through your nose, feeling the breath start in your abdomen and work its way to the top of your head. Reverse the process as you exhale through your mouth.

“Deep breathing counters the effects of stress by slowing the heart rate and lowering blood pressure,” psychologist Judith Tutin, PhD, says. She’s a certified life coach in Rome, GA.

3. Be Present : Slow down.

“Take 5 minutes and focus on only one behavior with awareness,” Tutin says. Notice how the air feels on your face when you’re walking and how your feet feel hitting the ground. Enjoy the texture and taste of each bite of food.

When you spend time in the moment and focus on your senses, you should feel less tense.

4. Reach Out

Your social network is one of your best tools for handling stress. Talk to others — preferably face to face, or at least on the phone. Share what’s going on. You can get a fresh perspective while keeping your connection strong.



5. Tune In to Your Body

Mentally scan your body to get a sense of how stress affects it each day. Lie on your back, or sit with your feet on the floor. Start at your toes and work your way up to your scalp, noticing how your body feels.

“Simply be aware of places you feel tight or loose without trying to change anything,” Tutin says. For 1 to 2 minutes, imagine each deep breath flowing to that body part. Repeat this process as you move your focus up your body, paying close attention to sensations you feel in each body part.


heat wrap

6. Decompress

Place a warm heat wrap around your neck and shoulders for 10 minutes. Close your eyes and relax your face, neck, upper chest, and back muscles. Remove the wrap, and use a tennis ball or foam roller to massage away tension.



7. Laugh Out Loud

A good belly laugh doesn’t just lighten the load mentally. It lowers cortisol, your body’s stress hormone, and boosts brain chemicals called endorphins, which help your mood. Lighten up by tuning in to your favorite sitcom or video, reading the comics, or chatting with someone who makes you smile.



8. Crank Up the Tunes

Research shows that listening to soothing music can lower blood pressure, heart rate, and anxiety. “Create a playlist of songs or nature sounds (the ocean, a bubbling brook, birds chirping), and allow your mind to focus on the different melodies, instruments, or singers in the piece,” Benninger says. You also can blow off steam by rocking out to more upbeat tunes — or singing at the top of your lungs!


 any form of exercise

9. Get Moving

You don’t have to run in order to get a runner’s high. All forms of exercise, including yoga and walking, can ease depression and anxiety by helping the brain release feel-good chemicals and by giving your body a chance to practice dealing with stress. You can go for a quick walk around the block, take the stairs up and down a few flights, or do some stretching exercises like head rolls and shoulder shrugs.

10. Be Grateful

Keep a gratitude journal or several (one by your bed, one in your purse, and one at work) to help you remember all the things that are good in your life.

journal writing

“Being grateful for your blessings cancels out negative thoughts and worries,” says Joni Emmerling, a wellness coach in Greenville, NC.

Use these journals to savor good experiences like a child’s smile, a sunshine-filled day, and good health. Don’t forget to celebrate accomplishments like mastering a new task at work or a new hobby.

When you start feeling stressed, spend a few minutes looking through your notes to remind yourself what really matters.

 source : Web MD



Tips to lower your ‘LDL’ (Bad) Cholesterol

Published July 7, 2014 by by : teacherdahl


Low-density lipoprotein (LDL) is one of the five major groups of lipoproteins.Cholesterol can’t dissolve in the blood. It must be transported through your bloodstream by carriers called lipoproteins, which got their name because they’re made of fat (lipid) and proteins.
In a world of good and bad cholesterol, LDL is the bad one. LDL collects in the walls of blood vessels, causing the blockages of atherosclerosis. Higher LDL levels put you at greater risk for a heart attack from a sudden blood clot in an artery narrowed by atherosclerosis. Getting your LDL cholesterol checked helps determine your risk for heart disease. If your LDL cholesterol is high, treatment can reduce your chance of having a heart attack.

Tips to lower your ‘LDL’ (Bad) Cholesterol


First frame

1. Curb Cholesterol, Not Flavor
It’s no secret that certain foods can help you lower your LDL (“bad”) cholesterol, which causes a buildup of plaque in the arteries that leads to heart disease, heart attacks, and stroke. But what may surprise you is that many of these foods are delicious and easy to incorporate into your everyday meals without sacrificing flavor or fun.


2. Indulge a Little
Dark chocolate contains flavonoids, antioxidants that help lower LDL levels. Just make sure to eat in moderation, as chocolate is also high in saturated fat and sugar. You can also use dark, unsweetened cocoa powder in your cooking to get similar heart-healthy effects.



3. Awesome Avocados
There’s more to avocados than just guacamole. They give you oleic acid, which helps lower the bad cholesterol in your bloodstream. Try putting a few slices on your turkey sandwich, or add them to a salad. Avocado oil, which has a subtle, sweet flavor, can also be used in place of other oils in cooking.

red wine

4. Raise a Glass

Red wine contains resveratrol, a substance found in the red grape skin, which may prevent damage to blood vessels by reducing the risk of blood clots and lowering LDL. Drinking too much alcohol can cause a host of other health issues, however; so while a glass of red wine at dinner is fine, don’t overdo it.


5. Tea Time
Both black and green teas contain powerful antioxidants that may reduce cholesterol levels. Green tea typically contains more of these antioxidant powerhouses, as it is made from unfermented leaves and is less processed. Just go easy on the cream and sugar.

nuts eating


6. Go Nuts for Nuts
Nuts are high in polyunsaturated fatty acids, so almonds, walnuts, or pistachios can help reduce your LDL levels. Try sprinkling them on your salad, or eat them right out of hand as a snack. Just be sure to choose the low-salt option, and keep it to about 1.5 ounces a day — nuts are also high in calories. For almonds, that’s about 30 almonds or 1/3 cup.

whole grains

7. Wholesome Whole Grains
Barley, oatmeal and brown rice have lots of soluble fiber, which has been proven to lower LDL cholesterol by reducing the absorption of cholesterol into your bloodstream. Try switching out your regular pasta for the whole-grain version, or use brown rice instead of white. To give an added cholesterol-busting kick, top your morning oatmeal with high-fiber fruit like bananas or apples.



8. Go Fishing
Fish like salmon, albacore tuna, sardines, and halibut are all rich in omega-3 fatty acids, which reduce triglycerides in the blood. Aim for 8 ounces of fish a week, and bake or grill the fish — don’t fry it — to keep it healthy.

Olive oil

9. Versatile Olive Oil
Olive oil is a plant-based fat, so it’s a better choice when you’re trying to lower your “bad” cholesterol than fats that come from animals. It’s great mixed with red wine vinegar, a minced garlic clove, and a little ground pepper for a salad dressing. For something different, try braising vegetables like carrots or leeks. Just drizzle 3 tablespoons of oil over vegetables in a snug baking dish, scatter some herbs, cover with foil, and put in a 375-degree oven for about 45 minutes.


10. Oh Boy, It’s Soy
Edamame, soy milk, and tofu are high in protein, and eating just 25 grams a day can reduce your cholesterol by 5 to 6 percent. Snack on edamame, top off your bowl of cereal with soy milk, or sub tofu for meat in your stir-fries.

bountiful beans

11. Bountiful Beans
Black beans, kidney beans, lentils, oh my! All are rich in soluble fiber, which binds to cholesterol in the blood and moves it out of the body. Recent studies show eating 4.5 ounces of beans a day can reduce LDL levels by 5 percent. Try black bean burritos, or dip some veggies in hummus, which is made with chickpeas, for an afternoon snack. Or try this Caramelized Onion and White Bean Flatbread — beans are so versatile, the possibilities are endless.

fruitful chnage

12. Make a Fruitful Change
Pears and apples have a lot of pectin, which is a type of fiber that can lower cholesterol. So do citrus fruits like oranges and lemons. Berries are also high in fiber. Try this Pear and Red Onion Gratin as a side dish. Or grab a Citrus Berry Smoothie in the morning before you head out the door.

eat veggies

13. Eat Your Veggies
Most vegetables are high in fiber and low in calories. Eggplant and okra contain high amounts of soluble fiber. Eggplants are also high in antioxidants. But any kind of vegetables will give you fiber and nutrients that are good for you.



14. Fortified Foods
Natural chemicals called sterols, which you get from plant foods, help your body absorb less cholesterol. Now, many foods from granola bars and yogurt to orange juice are fortified with plant sterols, which can help reduce cholesterol levels by 6% to 15%. Just check the label to make sure you’re not getting too many calories.

By : Dr Dahl D. Sagucio


source: Web MD



Diet Therapy : Standard Hospital Diets

Published June 23, 2014 by by : teacherdahl

a. Clear Liquid Diet. This diet is indicated for the postoperative patient’s first feeding when it is necessary to fully ascertain return of gastrointestinal function. It may also be used during periods of acute illness, in cases of food intolerance, and to reduce colon fecal matter for diagnostic procedures.

  1.  The diet is limited to fat-free broth or bouillon, flavored gelatin, water, fruit drinks without pulp, fruit ice, Popsicles, tea, coffee or coffee substitutes, and sugar. No cream or creamers are used. Carbonated beverages may be included when ordered by the physician; however, they are often contraindicated.


 The standard menu  provides approximately 1146 calories. This diet is below the recommended dietary allowances (RDA) for all nutrients tabulated except for Vitamin C (ascorbic acid). If the patient is to be on clear liquids for an extended period of time, the portion sizes should be increased or an accepted enteral formula may be provided.




b. Full Liquid Diet. This diet is used when a patient is unable to chew or swallow solid food because of extensive oral surgery, facial injuries, esophageal strictures, and carcinomas of the mouth and esophagus. It may be used to transition between a clear liquid and a regular diet for the post-surgical patient.




The diet consists of foods, which are liquid at room or body temperature, and will easily flow through a straw. Included in the full liquid diet are all juices, strained soups, thinned, cooked cereals, custards, ice cream, sherbet, and milk. A high protein beverage is given at breakfast and between meals. Commercially prepared liquid supplements may also be used.


c. Advanced Full Liquid Diet. This diet may be prescribed to meet the nutritive requirements of a patient who must receive a full liquid diet for an extended period of time or who has undergone oral surgery and must have foods, which can pass through a straw.



The foods permitted are the same as those allowed on the full liquid diet. The advanced full liquid diet is made more nutritious by the addition of blended, thinned, and strained meat, potatoes, and vegetables. High-protein beverages are served with meals and between meals.

d. Tonsillectomy and Adenoidectomy Cold Liquid Diet. This diet is used following a tonsillectomy and adenoidectomy (T&A). It is also used when only fluids or soothing foods in liquid form are tolerated.

  1.  The T&A cold liquid diet provides only cold liquids, which are free of irritants or acid properties. Foods allowed are flavored gelatins, ice cream, sherbet, and milk. A high protein beverage is served between meals.
  2. The standard menu mat is DA Form 2902-14-R. The T&A cold liquid diet does not meet the RDA for niacin and Vitamin A for adult males or children ages 4 to 10, and is below the RDA for thiamine for children ages 1 to 4. It does not meet the RDA for iron for any age group.


e. Soft Diet. The soft diet is prescribed for patients unable to tolerate a regular diet. It is part of the progressive stages of diet therapy after surgery or during recovery from an acute illness.


  • The diet consists of solid foods that are prepared without added black pepper, chili powder, or chili pepper. It does not contain whole grain cereals or salads with raw, fresh fruits and vegetables. Serving sizes are small to provide a gradual increase in the amount of food from the liquid diet.



f. Dental Soft Diet. This diet is prescribed for patients who are recovering from extensive oral surgery, have severe gingivitis, have had multiple extractions, have chewing difficulties because of tooth loss or other oral condition, or for the very elderly, toothless patient.

  1.  The diet is composed of seasoned ground meats, vegetables, and other foods, which are easily chewed. The individuality of the patient must not be overlooked when a dental soft diet is prescribed. Many patients resent being served ground meat.


g. Regular Diet. Regular diets are planned to meet the nutritional needs of adolescents, adults, and geriatric phases of the life span.

  1.  The regular diet includes the basic food groups and a variety of foods. The basic food groups include meat, milk, vegetables, fruits, bread and cereal, fats, and sweets.
  2.  The standard menu (Regular Diet) provides approximately 3375 calories. The selective menu is developed by each individual hospital according to patient needs, food availability, and cost. The regular diet is designed to provide exceptionally generous amounts of all recognized nutrients and meets or exceeds the RDA for all nutrients tabulated.
  3.  The Food Guide Pyramid is an outline of what we should eat each day (see figure 5-1). It shows six food groups, but emphasizes foods from the five food groups shown in the lower sections of the Pyramid. You need food from each group for good health. Each of the food groups provides some of the nutrients you need. Food from one group cannot replace those of another group.


h. Diabetic Diet. The diabetic diet is indicated in the treatment of the metabolic disorder diabetes mellitus. This disease results from an inadequate production or utilization of insulin. The object of treating the diabetic patient by diet, with or without insulin or oral drugs, is to prevent hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, glycosuria, and ketosis.




  1.  The diabetic food exchange lists are the basis for a meal planning system. The system lists: meat exchange, bread exchange, fruit and juice exchange, vegetable exchange, milk exchange and fat exchange. The number of exchanges allowed is based upon the doctor’s order and the dietitian’s calculations. Each diabetic diet should be individualized to meet the needs of the patient. The foods in each exchange contain the same amount of calories, carbohydrate, protein, and fat per portion size. Patients select from the exchange based upon their preference.
  2.  The adequacy and possible deficiencies depend on the calories. A diet of less than 1200 calories for women and less than 1500 calories for men would have a great chance of being deficient in some nutrients.
  3.  The goals of the diabetic diet are:
  •  To improve the overall health of the patient by attaining and maintaining optimum nutrition.
  •  To attain and maintain an ideal body weight.
  •  To provide for the pregnant woman and her fetus: normal physical growth in the child, adequate nutrition for lactation needs if she chooses to breast-feed her infant.
  •  To maintain plasma glucose as near the normal physiologic range as possible.
  •  To prevent or delay the development and progression of cardiovascular, renal, retinal, neurologic, and other complications associated with diabetes.
  • To modify the diet as necessary for complications of diabetes and for associated diseases.

i. Liberal Bland Diet. This diet is indicated for any medical condition requiring treatment for the reduction of gastric secretion, such as gastric or duodenal ulcers, gastritis, esophagitis, or hiatal hernia.



  1.  The diet consists of any variety of regular foods and beverages, which are prepared or consumed without black pepper, chili powder, or chili pepper. Chocolate, coffee, tea, caffeine-containing products, and decaffeinated coffee are not included in the diet. The diet should be as liberal as possible and individualized to meet the needs of the patient. Foods, which cause the patient discomfort, should be avoided. Small, frequent feedings may be prescribed to lower the acidity of the gastric content and for the physical comfort of the patient.

j. Low Fat Diet. Fat restricted diets may be indicated in diseases of the liver, gallbladder, or pancreas in which disturbances of the digestion and absorption of fat may occur (pancreatitis, post-gastrointestinal surgery, cholelithiasis, and cystic fibrosis).

  • The diet contains approximately 40 grams of fat from the six ounces of lean meat, fish, or poultry, one egg and three teaspoons of butter, margarine, or other allowed fats. Only lean, well-trimmed meats and skim milk are used. All foods are prepared without fat.


k. Sodium Restricted Diet. The purpose of the sodium-restricted diet is to promote loss of body fluids for patients who are unable to excrete the element normally because of a pathological condition. The diet is indicated for the prevention, control, and elimination of edema in congestive heart failure; cirrhosis of the liver with ascites; renal disease complicated by either edema or hypertension; when administration of adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) or steroids are prescribed, and for certain endocrine disorders such as Cushing’s disease and hypothyroidism.

  1.  The sodium-restricted diets provide a specific sodium level or a range of sodium. The diet order must indicate the specific sodium level or range desired either in milligrams (mg) or mill equivalent (mEq). Terms such as “salt free” and “low sodium” are not sufficient.
  •  All foods on the 500 mg and 1000 mg sodium diets are prepared without the addition of salt, and foods high in sodium are omitted. The 500 mg sodium diet uses both sodium restricted bread and margarine. The 1000 mg sodium diet uses sodium restricted margarine and regular bread. The 2000 mg sodium diet uses regular bread and margarine, and regular cereal and desserts prepared with sodium.


  •  The standard menu mats, DA Form 2906-1-R (500 mg sodium diet), DA Form 2906-2-R (1000 mg sodium diet), and DA Form 2906-3-R (2000 mg sodium diet), provide between 2083 and 2554 calories.


2. The diets are below the RDA in iron for males ages 11 to 22 and for females ages 11 to 50. Thiamine is inadequate for males at all levels. Calcium and niacin are also low for certain diets and ages.


How to Raise Happy Kids : Ten Steps Backed by Science

Published June 13, 2014 by by : teacherdahl

raise happy kids


When you ask parents what they want for their kids, what’s usually the most common reply? They want their children to be happy.

Now there’s tons of info on raising smart kids and successful kids, but how do you raise happy kids?

Sometimes it’s hard to balance what’s best for children with what makes them happy — but the two don’t have to be mutually exclusive.

Happier kids are more likely to turn into successful, accomplished adults.

happy mom


Step 1: Get Happy Yourself
The first step to happier kids is, ironically, a little bit selfish.  How happy you are affects how happy and successful your kids are — dramatically.




Because laughter is contagious, hang out with friends or family members who are likely to be laughing themselves. Their laughter will get you laughing too, although it doesn’t even need to in order to lighten your mood. Neuroscientists believe that hearing another person laugh triggers mirror neurons in a region of the brain that makes listeners feel as though they are actually laughing themselves.


kids with friends

Step 2: Teach Them To Build Relationships

Nobody denies learning about relationships is important — but how many parents actually spend the time to teach kids how to relate to others?   (Just saying “Hey, knock it off” when kids don’t get along really doesn’t go far in building essential people skills.)

It doesn’t take a lot. It can start with encouraging kids to perform small acts of kindness to build empathy. This not only builds essential skills and makes your kids better people, research shows over the long haul it makes them happier.

Step 3: Expect Effort, Not Perfection

Note to perfectionist helicopter parents and Tiger Moms: cool it. Relentlessly banging the achievement drum messes kids up.

kids effort


The research is very consistent: Praise effort, not natural ability.




“When we praise children for the effort and hard work that leads to achievement, they want to keep engaging in that process. They are not diverted from the task of learning by a concern with how smart they might — or might not — look.”

Step 4: Teach Optimism




Want to avoid dealing with a surly teenager? Then teach those pre-teens to look on the bright side.


ten year olds


Author Christine Carter puts it simply: “Optimism is so closely related to happiness that the two can practically be equated.”

She compares optimists to pessimists and finds optimists:

  • Are more successful at school, work and athletics
  • Are healthier and live longer
  • End up more satisfied with their marriages
  • Are less likely to deal with depression and anxiety

Step 5: Teach Emotional Intelligence


Emotional intelligence is a skill, not an inborn trait.

Thinking kids will just “naturally” come to understand their own emotions (let alone those of others) doesn’t set them up for success.

A simple first step here is to “Empathize, Label and Validate” when they’re struggling with anger or frustration.


emotional intelligence



Step 6: Form Happiness Habits

Thinking through these methods is taxing but acting habitually is easy, once habits have been established.

How do you help kids build lasting happiness habits?

  • Stimulus removal: Get distractions and temptations out of the way.
  • Make It Public: Establish goals to increase social support — and social pressure.
  • One Goal At A Time: Too many goals overwhelms willpower, especially for kids. Solidify one habit before adding another.
  • Keep At It: Don’t expect perfection immediately. It takes time. There will be relapses. That’s normal. Keep reinforcing.

Step 7: Teach Self-Discipline


talk to kids

Self-discipline in kids is more predictive of future success than intelligence — or most anything else, for that matter.Yes, it’s that famous marshmallow test all over again. Kids who better resisted temptation went on to much better lives years later and were happier.



What’s a good way to start teaching self-discipline?

Help kids learn to distract themselves from temptation.

One way to do it is to obscure the temptation–to physically cover up the tempting marshmallow. When a reward is covered up, 75 percent of kids in one study were able to wait a full fifteen minutes for the second marshmallow; none of the kids was able to wait this long when the reward was visible.

Step 8: More Playtime


more playtime


Getting kids to do outdoor play regularly  works  well. Playtime isn’t just goofing off. It’s essential to helping kids grow and learn.

Step 9: Rig Their Environment For Happiness

less TV time


We don’t like to admit it, but we’re all very much influenced by our environment – often more than we realize.Your efforts will be constrained by time and effort, while context affects us (and children) constantly.What’s a simple way to better control a child’s surroundings and let your deliberate happiness efforts have maximum effect?   Less TV.

…research demonstrates a strong link between happiness and not watching television. Sociologists show that happier people tend to watch considerably less television than unhappy people. We don’t know whether TV makes people unhappy, or if already unhappy people watch more TV. But we do know that there are a lot of activities that will help our kids develop into happy, well-adjusted individuals. If our kids are watching TV, they aren’t doing those things that could be making them happier in the long run.

Step 10: Eat Dinner Together

Sometimes all science does is validate those things our grandparents knew all along. Yes, family dinner matters.This simple tradition helps mold better kids and makes them happier too.


meal together

Studies show that kids who eat dinner with their families on a regular basis are more emotionally stable and less likely to abuse drugs and alcohol. They got better grades. they have fewer depressive symptoms, particularly among adolescent girls. And they are less likely to become obese or have an eating disorder. Family dinners even trump reading to your kids in terms of preparing them for school. And these associations hold even after researchers control for family connectedness…


remember you


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